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Women’s Work

October 26, 2020

Two poems by UA Fanthorpe


Degas painted dozens of “La Repasseuse” Woman Ironing pictures. The one Fanthorpe refers to (right above) is in the Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool. It’s the last in a series of three of this particular pose. The George Bernard Shaw quote is from the play Man & Superman.

Woman Ironing

I thought I knew what was coming when he said,
He wanted to do my likeness at the ironing.
I live in the city, people tell you things. Me looking at him,
It would be, across the ironing board, my hair and my eyes
In a good light, and something a bit off the shoulder

But it wasn’t. He rushed around drawing curtains
Made it hard to iron. O yes, I had to keep ironing.
He need to see the strength, he said. Kept on
About my dynamic right shoulder, then left it out
Though you can see where he ought to have put it.

Come on, what’s-your-name, he kept saying,
Show us that muscle power! That’s what I’m after.
I might’ve been an engine, not a person
No, I didn’t take to him, I’m used to rudeness,
But he was making such a sketch of me.

If someone’s paying you, it isn’t easy
To speak your mind. Still, Sir, I said,
I really don’t want to see my hair like that,
all scraped back, like a hot person’s hair,
And anyone can tell that under my arms I’m sweating.

Hair? Sweat? That’s how it is when you iron,
Says he. You’re not here to tell me what to do.
I’ll make you permanent, the way you look
When you’re ironing. O yes, he says, I’ll show you
The way you look when no one’s watching.

UA Fanthorpe

Mother Scrubbing the Floor

She had a dancer’s feet, elegant, witty.
We had our father’s, maverick spreaders of dirt.

Dirt from London, dirt from Kent
Mud, dust, grass, droppings, wetness, things,
Dirt barefaced, dirt stinking, dirt invisible.

Whatever it was, she was ready:
The rubber kneeler, clanking galvanised bucket,
The Lifebuoy, the hard hot water.

Let me! we’d say, meaning Hate to see you do this.
Too old. Too resentful. Besides, you’ll blame us
That you had to do it.

She never yielded. We couldn’t do it right,
Lacking her hatred of filth, her fine strong hands.

Don’t want you to do this, she said. Don’t want you to have to.
Just remember this: love isn’t sex.
But the dreary things you do for the people you love.
And ‘Home is the girl’s prison,
The woman’s workhouse.’ Not me; Shaw.

I do remember. I stand where she knelt.

UA Fanthorpe

Indirect effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on pregnancy

October 8, 2020

Primary sources updated 24th October has been collecting primary scientific (click here) & newspaper reports (click here) of Covid-19 or SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy since early in the pandemic (click here for our Covid-19 in pregnancy navigation page).

Here we (Jim Thornton, Keelin O’Donoghue and Kate Walker) collect primary scientific reports of the indirect effects of the pandemic on pregnancy.  As usual facts but no comments. For convenience we list papers in roughly reverse order, newest first. We will update regularly.

Update 24 October – papers 16 and 17 added

Paper 17 – reduced general anaesthesia for Caesarean during lockdown, UK

Six hospitals observed a fall in Caesarean general anaesthesia rates from 7.7 to 3.7% during the pandemic (click here or ). Citation; Bhatia K, Columb M, Bewlay A, Eccles J, Hulgur M, Jayan N, Lie J, Verma D, Parikh R. The effect of COVID-19 on general anaesthesia rates for caesarean section. A cross sectional analysis of six hospitals in the north-west of England. Anaesthesia. 2020 Oct 18. doi: 10.1111/anae.15313. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33073371.

Paper 16 – reduced preterm birth in a Philadelphia hospital

In Thomas Jefferson University Hospital preterm birth fell from 13% in March 1-July 31 2019, to 10% in March 1-July 31 2020 (click here or berghella AJOGMFM). Citation: Berghella V, Burd J, Anderson K, Boelig R, Roman A, Decreased incidence of preterm birth during COVID-19 pandemic, American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM (2020), doi:

Update 20 October – papers 13 to 15 added

Paper 15  – Miscarriage before and during lockdown in Montreal, Canada

No change (click here or main (4)) Citation: Olshinka KR, Volodarsky-Perel A, Steiner N, Rubenfeld ES, Dahan MH. COVID-19 PANDEMIC EFFECT ON EARLY PREGNANCY – ARE MISCARRIAGE RATES ALTERED, IN ASYMPTOMATIC WOMEN?. Fertil Steril. 2020;114(3):e525-e526. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2020.09.036

Paper 14 – Diabetes control during lockdown in Lille, France

It deteriorated (click here or main (3)). Citation: Ghesquière L, Garabedian C, Drumez E, et al. Effects of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on gestational diabetes mellitus: A retrospective study [published online ahead of print, 2020 Oct 15]. Diabetes Metab. 2020;doi:10.1016/j.diabet.2020.09.008

Paper 13 – The Covid-19 New Mum survey

Self-selected and self-reported UK maternal birth experiences before and after lockdown (click here or main (2)). Citation: A. Vazquez-Vazquez, Appetite,

Update 18 October – papers 10 to 12 added

Paper 12 – Reduced preterm birth in The Netherlands

National study based on dried blood spot screening programme (click here or PIIS2468266720302231). Citation: Been, Jasper V et al. Impact of COVID-19 mitigation measures on the incidence of preterm birth: a national quasi-experimental study. The Lancet Public Health, Volume 0, Issue 0.

Paper 11 – Reduced preterm births in Dublin, Ireland

There was a small reduction in preterm birth, but no other effects, between 1st January & 31st July 2020 compared to the same period in 2019 in the Coombe Women & Infants University Hospital (click here or PIIS0301211520306539). Citation: McDonnell S, McNamee E, Lindow SW, O’Connell MP, The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on maternity services: a review of maternal and neonatal outcomes before, during and after the pandemic, European Journal of Obstetrics and amp; Gynecology and Reproductive Biology (2020), doi:

Paper 10 – Reduced preterm births in Israel 

This preprint consists only of results tables (click here or PIIS0002937820311881 (1)). The corresponding author is from Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Israel. Citation: Meyer R, Friedrich L, Maixner N, Bart Y, Tsur A, Yinon Y, Levin G, A marked decrease in Preterm Deliveries during the COVID-19 Pandemic, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2020), doi: 

Update 12 October – papers 8 and 9 added

Paper 9 – Effect of lockdown in one hospital in Israel

Various pregnancy complications  over March–April 2020 (the peak COVID-19 outbreak) in one large hospital, were compared with March–April 2019 in the same hospital (click here or 231152 (002)). From author affiliations the hospital was probably Rambam Health Care Campus in Haifa. Citation: Justman N, Shahak G, Gutzeit O, Ben Zvi D, Ginsberg Y, Solt I, Vitner D, Beloosesky R, Weiner Z, Zipori Y. Lockdown with a Price: The impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Prenatal Care and Perinatal Outcomes in a Tertiary Care Center. Isr Med Assoc J. 2020 Sep;9(22):467-471. PMID: 32954690.

Paper 8 – Effect of lockdown in one hospital in Japan

The rates of women hospitalised for some pregnancy complications in Keio University Hospital between April 1st and June 30th, 2020, were compared with the same period 2017-19 (click here or jog.14518). No substantive outcomes reported. Citation: Kasuga, Y., Tanaka, M. and Ochiai, D. (2020), Preterm delivery and hypertensive disorder of pregnancy were reduced during the COVID‐19 pandemic: A single hospital‐based study. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.. doi:10.1111/jog.14518

Update 9 October – papers 6 and 7 added

Paper 7 – reduced admission to emergency OBGYN during first wave in Milan, Italy

Between February 24th & May 31st 2020 emergency OBGYN admissions decreased by 35% at Clinica Mangiagalli, the largest maternity clinic in Milan, compared with the corresponding period in 2019   (click here or 1-s2.0-S0301211520305777-main). Five fetal deaths were seen in the emergency clinic in the pandemic period compared with one in the earlier period. Total perinatal deaths were not reported for either period. Citation: Chiara Dell’Utri, Elisabetta Manzoni, Sonia Cipriani, Claudio Spizzico, Andrea Dell’Acqua, Giussy Barbara, Fabio Parazzini, Alessandra Kustermann. Effects of SARS Cov-2 epidemic on the obstetrical and gynecological emergency service accesses. What happened and what shall we expect now? European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Volume 254, 2020, Pages 64-68, ISSN 0301-2115, 

Paper 6 – Four maternal deaths from suicide & two women murdered during UK lockdown

Four women died from suicide during pregnancy or soon after birth and two recently pregnant women died from domestic violence in the UK, between 01/03/2020 and 31/05/2020,causes (click here or ref.-201-mbrrace-uk-maternal-covid-19-report-final-002)). Citation: Knight M, Bunch K, Cairns A, Cantwell R, Cox P, Kenyon S, Kotnis R, Lucas DN, Lucas S, Marshall L, Nelson-Piercy C, Page L, Rodger A, Shakespeare J, Tuffnell D, Kurinczuk JJ on behalf of MBRRACE-UK. Saving Lives, Improving Mothers’ Care Rapid Report: Learning from SARS-CoV-2-related and associated maternal deaths in the UK March – May 2020 Oxford: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford 2020.

Paper 5 – no change in extremely preterm births during lockdown in the SafeBoosC-III consortium trial centres

In this Medxiv preprint the rate of extremely preterm births (<28 weeks) in 46 neonatal intensive care units participating in the SafeBoosC-III trial, did not alter during the three months of most rigorous lockdown, compared with the corresponding three months of 2019 (click here or 2020.10.02.20204578v1.full). Citation: Marie Isabel Rasmussen, Mathias Luehr Hansen, Gerhard Pichler, Eugene Dempsey, Adelina Pellicer, Afif EL-Khuffash, Shashidhar A, Salvador Piris-Borregas, Miguel Alsina, Merih Cetinkaya, Lina Chalak, Hilal Ozkan, Mariana Baserga, Jan Sirc, Hans Fuchs, Ebru Ergenekon, Luis Arruza, Amit Mathur, Martin Stocker, Olalla Otero-Vaccarello, Tomasz Szczapa, Kosmas Sarafidis, Barbara Krolak-Olejnik, Asli Memisoglu, Hallvard Reigstad, Elzbieta Rafinska-Wazny, Eleftheria Hatzidaki, Zhang Peng, Despoina Gkentzi, Renaud Viellevoye, Julie De Buyst, Emmanuele Mastretta, Ping Wang, Gitte Hahn, Lars Bender, Luc Cornette, Jakub Tkaczyk, Ruth del Rio, Monica Fumagalli, Evangelina Papathoma, Maria Wilinska, Gunnar Naulers, Iwona Sadowska-Kakrawczenko, Chantal Lecart, Maria Luz Couce, Siv Fredly, Anne Marie Heuchan, Tanja Karen, Gorm Greisen Extremely preterm infant admissions within the SafeBoosC-III consortium during the COVID-19 lockdown  medRxiv 2020.10.02.20204578; doi:

Paper 4 – Fall in very & extremely low birthweight infants during lockdown in Limerick, Ireland

The rate of birth of both very low birthweight and extremely low birth weight infants reduced significantly in Jan-April 2020 compared witht the same period over the preceding 10 years (click here or e003075.full). Citation: Philip RKPurtill HReidy E, et al Unprecedented reduction in births of very low birthweight (VLBW) and extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants during the COVID-19 lockdown in Ireland: a ‘natural experiment’ allowing analysis of data from the prior two decades. 

Paper 3 – Halving of hospital births & increased perinatal mortality during lockdown in Nepal

Between Jan 1 and May 30, 2020, births in nine hospitals in Nepal halved during the latter 5 lockdown weeks, and stillbirths and neonatal mortality rose significantly (click here or PIIS2214109X20303454 (1)). Citation: KC, Ashish et al. Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic response on intrapartum care, stillbirth, and neonatal mortality outcomes in Nepal: a prospective observational study. The Lancet Global Health, Volume 8, Issue 10, e1273 – e1281

Paper 2 – Fall in extreme prematurity during lockdown in Denmark

Using a national database the numbers of extremely premature singleton births was significantly lower between 12 March and 14 April 2020 than the previous five years (click here or fetalneonatal-2020-319990). There was no significant difference in other gestational age categories. Citation: Hedermann G, Hedley PL, Bækvad-Hansen M, Hjalgrim H, Rostgaard K, Poorisrisak P, Breindahl M, Melbye M, Hougaard DM, Christiansen M, Lausten-Thomsen U. Danish premature birth rates during the COVID-19 lockdown. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2020 Aug 11:fetalneonatal-2020-319990. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2020-319990. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32788391; PMCID: PMC7421710.

Paper 1 – Rise in stillbirths at a London hospital

St George’s hospital in South London noted a rise in stillbirths between February 1 & June 14, 2020 compared with the previous four months (click here or jama_khalil_2020_ld_200076). Neonatal deaths were not reported. There were no significant differences in preterm birth rates. Citation: Khalil A, von Dadelszen P, Draycott T, Ugwumadu A, O’Brien P, Magee L. Change in the Incidence of Stillbirth and Preterm Delivery During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA. 2020;324(7):705–706. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.12746

Jim Thornton, Keelin O’Donoghue & Kate Walker

Beth Rowley

September 27, 2020

Supporting artists during lockdown


If your spine tingled to the introductory music to the BBC drama Strike (click here) you’re a Beth Rowley fan. She comes from my birthtown, Bristol, and has released two albums. I think she’s right up there with Adele and Amy Winehouse. But it was through Strike that I discovered her. Normally I’d have played her on Spotify and checked if she ever performed near Nottingham. But she won’t be touring now.

Until streaming came along, musicians used to make most of their money from LP & CD sales. Then live performance took over, surely a good thing.  Now that has stopped we need to go back to buying CDs. Her latest Gota Fria is £11.99 on Amazon, and an extra 95p on her own website. I love Amazon but they are doing well out of lockdown. I still have a job and less to spend my money on, so the latter it was (click here).

It’s a wonderful record. Time to buy Little Dreamer.

Jim Thornton

OASI care bundle evaluation project

September 23, 2020

A well-conducted study, but an unclear result

I admit it. I was sceptical. A stepped wedge (type of cluster) trial evaluating a “care bundle” (leaflets, a manoevre called the “Finnish grip”, 60o episiotomy & routine rectal examination) with, at best, a shaky evidence base (click here & here), evaluated by researchers who clearly already believed in it, and driven by two political organisations (RCM & RCOG) whose leaders felt that “something must be done” and were claiming success even before it started (2016 links no longer available). When the project ended, and more press releases announced success (2018 links not available), without any results appearing for over two years, I feared the worst; sample size changes, centres excluded for “low compliance”, participants disappearing from analysis groups, outcome switching, statistical shenanigans.

The “Finnish grip” is a bit odd too. Although mentioned on the Care Bundle website (click here), it doesn’t appear in the protocol or trial registry – I did a word search. Both call the 3rd element “Manual perineal protection”. The “Finnish grip” is mentioned, but not described, in the main trial report, and the references cited as sources (click here and here) describe it as “a technique for guiding the head through the introitus by gripping the baby’s chin with a flexed middle finger of the other hand”. They both refer to (Pirhonen et al 1998 click here) as the original source. In 1998 Jouko Pirhonen was a trainee in Lund, Sweden, and he is now a professor in Oslo, Norway. But Pirhonen is a Finnish name, and his co-authors included three obstetricians (no midwives) from Finland. They wrote:

“The delivery assistant presses the baby’s head with her left hand to control the speed of crowning through the vaginal introitus. Simultaneously, using the thumb and index finger of the right hand to support the perineum while the flexed middle finger is used to take a grip on the baby’s chin. When a good grip has been achieved, the woman is asked to stop pushing, to breathe rapidly, while the midwife slowly helps baby’s head through the vaginal introitus. When most of the head is out, the perineal ring is pushed under the baby’s chin.”

This is anatomically impossible, unless the flexed middle finger enters the rectum – surely they don’t mean that! – and even then it would be a stretch to reach the chin. Something probably got lost in translation. In practice it’s likely that midwives using the Care Bundle controlled delivery of the head by perineal pressure and discouraging maternal pushing.

I confess I feared the whole study would shed more heat than light on the topic, and together with a colleague, Hannah Dahlen, wrote a grumbling opinion piece (click here).

But the results are in (click here or gurol-urganci), together with a qualitative study of the implementation process (click here or bidwell), and I’m eating my words.

The study was registered (click here), and the protocol published (click here). Registration was a bit late 22/09/2017 – the project ran from 1 October 2016 and 31 March 2018 – but that’s made clear in the paper, and the protocol had been publicly available since January 2017. There’s no reason to believe either was written after peeking at the data.

Four regions, each containing a mixture of different size and type of birth unit were studied over the same 18-month period, with routine data collected all through. Only four randomised units is rather few, but unavoidable due to funding contraints.

Regions were randomised to have the care bundle taught and implemented sequentially over months 4-6, 7-9, 10-12 or 13-15 respectively. These transition periods were excluded from analysis. This left four 3, 6, 9 or 12-month duration baseline phases, and four same duration evaluation phases to compare. The Consort flow diagram, for some reason relegated to supplementary material* (click here), shows the design nicely. Exclusions were all for objective reasons, Caesarean, multiple or still-birth and did not alter over the trial.

All women having a singleton vaginal birth were included and the size of the before and after groups was approximately equal (baseline 27,668, evaluation 27,932). This is reassuring. Differential rates of Caesarean birth, baseline 12,807 (31.6%) v evaluation 12,472 (31.3%), had not muddied the waters.

The primary, indeed the only, endpoint was OASI (obsteric anal sphincter injury) as recorded on the hospital routine database, and the primary analysis was done after statistical adjustment for a range of potentially relevant factors. Here are the relevant methods as reported in the paper.

“We used multi-level logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) […]. The regression model included a linear term for calendar time […] a random effect to account for clustering at both region and unit levels and individual case-mix factors (maternal age, ethnicity, body mass index, parity, mode of birth and birthweight).”

And here they are as planned in the protocol.

“We will use logistic mixed effects regression to model the log odds of sustaining an OASI, with a fixed effect for each step and a random effect to account for clustering at the unit level. The model will include a linear secular trend and also adjust for risk factors for OASI (maternal age, BMI, ethnicity, mode of delivery, episiotomy, birthweight, prolonged labour, and shoulder dystocia).”

Perfect. The planned analysis was done.

And the result. The recorded OASI rate decreased from 911/27,668 (3.3%) baseline phase to 817/27392 (3.0%) evaluation phase (aOR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65–0.98) p=0.03.

But what does it mean? Did manual perineal protection prevent 94 women suffering OASI? Did the 60o episiotomy do the trick? Did a few women read the leaflet and, fearful of OASI, choose Caesarean? Or a mixture of all three? Or was the difference in the “diagnosis” of OASI?

The original research, which had inspired the trial, had shown a much larger increase in recorded OASI from 1.8% in 2000 to 5.9% in 2011 (click here). The authors of that study, who included many of the current trial authors, had concluded that “improved recognition of tears following the implementation of a standardised classification of perineal tears was the most likely explanation”. They were surely correct. Diagnosing OASI is not easy. It can be both over and underdiagnosed. An effect size of 0.3% in an endpoint which can vary by 4.1% due “improved recognition” must be susceptible to ascertainment bias.

And this was an “open” trial. Staff may not have realised they were in the baseline phase but they certainly knew about the implementation and evaluation phases. This is from the qualitative study report (click here or bidwell).

“Many participants spoke about a well advertised launch, which created a lot of ‘noise’ and got the project off to a good start: ‘Yes, we had a launch day at the unit….on that day they had many sessions talking about it. We had the models.….they had pictures of how you would give an episiotomy, things like that, to add to this…There was quite a lot of noise about this. (Midwife)'”

“Many talked about the positive and passionate way with which the champions delivered the training. ‘She [the champion] was like a hound! …. if you weren’t trained and you were on her list, she would hunt you down….She would come in early to catch people on night shifts and stuff……If you have somebody like that who is passionate about the training and gets the training done, then I think that’s what makes it better. (Obstetrician)'”

How did midwives and doctors in the midst of such a campaign classify borderline cases?

Consider, for example, a woman with suspected OASI transferred to the operating theatre for repair, who when reviewed under good light by a senior staff member was found to have an intact sphincter? Would the theatre staff recode the planned operation to “repair of episiotomy”? In the baseline phase they might not even have realised the diagnosis had changed. But in the implementation and evaluation phases, with champions “hounding” everyone, the coding surely would be altered. Of course the effect might also have gone in the other direction. Routine rectal examination might have increased diagnosis. We just don’t know.

These doubts matter because the underlying evidence base for each component of the bundle is so weak. Well designed individually randomised trials do not support manual perineal protection (click here), there have been no trials of 60o angle episiotomy, and rectal examination after normal birth in the absence of a tear makes no sense (click here).

We can all support information giving, avoiding midline episiotomies and doing rectal examinations in the presence of tears. But the debate over manual perineal protection, extremely lateral episiotomy, and routine rectal examination even after normal birth with an intact perineum, will surely continue.

Jim Thornton

Footnote. *The Consort flow diagram belongs in the main report, especially for complex designs. Come on BJOG!

An improved martini

September 4, 2020

Not a better recipe, but a better technique – freezing water in the glass

Last week, dipping into Kingsley Amis’s Everyday Drinking (click here) on holiday, I came across this under “the Dry Martini”.

“A couple of hours before the party get your glasses together. They should be on the small side – the second half of a too large martini will have become too warm by the time the average drinker gets to it – and have some sort of stem or base to prevent the hand-imparting warmth. […] Fill each with water and put in the refrigerator.”

I read it as “put in the freezer”. As Amis says.

“It is more important that a cold drink should be as cold as possible than that it should be as concentrated as possible.”

I should have realised that in Amis’s day the freezer section of a domestic fridge would barely hold a tray of ice; no chance even a small martini glass. But I’ve got a modern monster freezer, so undaunted I made my martini. Freezing the water in the glass in emulation, and using a modern vermouth, Regal Rogue – Daringly Dry (click here), to annoy him. Click here for the video. It worked a treat.


Only afterwards did I realise he’d never meant “freeze the ice in the glass”. He wrote.

“While the jug is standing, empty the water out of the glasses and drop a bit of lemon rind in each.”

Nor, from a brief google search, does anyone else. People add ice cubes, sometimes large ones to avoid the over-dilution problem, but never my technique.  I offer it to the world.

Jim Thornton

6 September update

I was wrong, or rather right first time. Amis did advocate freezing water in the glass, albeit ten years later. My volume is a compendium of three books; On Drink (1974), Everyday Drinking (1983) and How’s Your Glass? (1985). The quotations were from On Drink. By the time of Everyday Drinking he must have got a larger freezer. He writes.

“The best Dry Martini known to man is the one I make myself. In the cold part of the refrigerator I have a bottle of gin and a small wineglass, half full of water that has been allowed to freeze.”

“When the hour strikes I half fill the remaining space with gin, flick in a few drops of vermouth and add a couple of cocktail onions, the small white hard kind. Now that is a drink.”

Oh well. Nothing new.

Lockdown cocktails

July 13, 2020

Drinking – not paddling – down the Loire

Our small gang have been walking the Camino de Santiago (click here or here), and more recently canoeing the Loire (click here or here). When lockdown put paid to our 2020 trip from Blois to Saumur we met up on Zoom instead, and inspired by Stanley Tucci (click here and here), drank cocktails. Here they are; some with a poem.

Hemingway’s daiquiri (click here).

Philip Larkin’s gin & tonic (click here).

A “No”groni (click here).

A conventional Negroni under adverse conditions (click here).

James Bond’s Vesper martini (click here).

The Gilles Villeneuve martini (click here).

A Radish Walked into a Bar (click here)

The Kingsley Amis martini (click here).

Forgive the rough edges. Filmed on different phones, and once made you’ve gotta drink it, so a second take wouldn’t help.

We also drank appropriate wine from the brothers Yapp, but no videos of that. First day sweet Vouvray (click here), 2nd a dry one (click here), 3rd Bourgueil (click here), 4th Saint-Nicolas-de-Bourgueil (click here) and 5th Saumur (click here). Forgotten the others, but to end with we popped open a fizz (click here). All more expensive than our usual riverbank plonk, but I guess we’d saved on the ferry crossing. 

Jim Thornton

Wild swimming in the river Trent.

June 6, 2020

Downstream of Nottingham

One of my projects for the 2020 lock-down summer has been to swim the best spots. If you don’t mind disclaimer forms, safety briefings, and signing in and out [1], there’s a dedicated centre on Colwick Park lake (click here). But that’s not for me.

These swims are for privateers. All, bar Farndon, are on the left, northern, bank. I’ll try to remedy that in any updates. Update 16 June – Cromwell.

Stoke Bardolph

Right in front of the Ferry Boat pub, two or three slipways and landing stages provide easy access. Great spot. Crowded on sunny days.


It’s also about 100 yards upstream of the discharge from Severn Trent’s, state of the art, Stoke Bardolph treatment plant! Ideal if you’re nervous of pollution.


Park in front of the Unicorn Hotel, and swim off the metal boat ramp next to the water ski club.


Don’t forget Gunthorpe gravel pit. Some fishermen claim swimming is prohibited there, so be discreet. Walk under the road bridge for about 1/2 mile, and turn right immediately after footbridge. Lots of easy access and a lovely stony bed. Magical.



On sunny days the parking along the river bank road gets full early, but the bank is stony and access easy. Any slight smell is from muck-spreading on the surrounding fields, not the river. Another good spot.


One of my favourites. The metal slipway at the end of the road provides easy access, albeit slippery. The car park is private and locked, but there’s plenty of space on the road. The boat moorings leave a sheltered area near the slipway for those who are nervous of venturing into midstream.

If the slipway’s crowded try upstream, along the river path, past the moorings and caravan park. Plenty of the fishing pegs have good access. I swam by the Km 23 mark.

Downstream is less good. Although there’s plenty of access points below the weir, the water tends to be frothy.



Park about 1/4 mile downstream of the Bromley Arms and walk upstream. The problem here is the high river wall. Don’t even think of jumping! Some pontoons are barred off, and they all have “private mooring” signs, but no-one has ever objected to me using one of the open ones. Getting back on is tricky. Swim round to the river wall – shallow stony bed – and step back on with your dignity intact.


Peg 18 below Fiskerton

Park as above and walk downstream. Nottingham Piscatorial Society have marked their fishing pegs with numbers set in the grass. Peg 18 is obscured but it’s the best spot. If you avoid the fishing season, usually quiet enough for a skinny dip.



From the roundabout at the south end of Newark bypass, take the B166, the old Fosse Way to Farndon. Turn right, then left, initially following signs to Farndon marina. Then ignore the 2nd right to Farndon marina and follow signs to The Waterfront. Sandy ramp. Lovely.

North Muskham

Down Ferry Lane to the Muskham Ferry pub, and swim off the slipway. Slightly muddy, but nothing to trouble a wild swimmer.



A farm track, signed as a footpath, from Cromwell village, crosses the A1 as a single track road to the lock. Plenty of parking at the sign which says “no parking or boat launching at the lock”. Upstream of the lock, by two brick barbeques, a ramp leads to a pontoon with steps into the water at each end. Perfect.



Head for the Church, and Ferry Lane. The road to the river, Perry Lane, is full of “no access to river” signs so I parked back up in the village. In fact there is parking. Two possible swim spots. Upstream of the commercial wharf, access looks easy via stony muddy banks, but I was nervous of a metal detectorist on the opposite bank.

The wharf itself has a ladder down to the water, but it’s high and muddy and my courage failed again. About 1/4 mile downstream is best. Stony and a bit muddy, but a good gap in the nettles. The opposite bank also looked inviting.

Carlton is downstream of Cromwell weir, so right at the tidal limit. But it’s on the outside of the bend so you’re straight into fast flow. I kept station, but only just. If you got carried downstream, you’d end up clambering out through nettle beds.


I’ve never swum below Carlton. There must be good spots but I doubt they beat the ones above.

Jim Thornton


  1.  One of the annoyances of river swimming is people banging on about the risks. Learn to swim and avoid the river in spate or near weirs. Weil’s disease is rare; only about 30 recreational cases, and less than one death, per year in the UK. Given the number of people coming into contact with river water, the drive to the riverbank is probably more risky, but avoid swimming with an open cut. Gastroenteritis is less of a risk for older swimmers who don’t wear wet suits; we don’t stay in so long, have developed antibodies and are wise enough not to swallow.

Covid-19 pregnancy news reports

May 17, 2020

Primary newspaper sources

In roughly reverse order. Updated regularly. Click here for’s Covid-19 in pregnancy navigation page.

25 October update

242. Monica Ramirez contracted Covid-19 at 30 weeks (click here). She delivered by Caesarean and was on a ventilator for 3 weeks. She and her baby survived. She had been admitted to Corona Regional Medical Center in San Bernardino County, California in July, and later transfereed to Loma Linda University Medical Center. 48 pregnant women with Covid-19 have been cared for at the latter hospital. Report 24 October.

18 October update

241. Chava Leah bas Esther is seriously ill with Covid-19 in Ichilov Hospital in Tel Aviv (click here). Two weeks following Caesarean birth she remains on a ventilator & ECMO. The baby survived. Report 12 October.

240. Nuha Abu Siam died of COVID-19 on October 8, one month after she gave birth by Caesarean at Soroka Medical Center in Beersheba (click here). She had been treated with ECMO. The baby was unaffected. Report 12 October.

239. This Reuters report suggests that 80% of pregnant women in Bolivia are testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (click here). Although I’m unaware of any different figures, this seems unlikely. Report 12 October.

238. Emily Donovan contracted Covid-19 and gave birth at 37 weeks at NorthBay Medical Center in Fairfield California, in July (click here). Mother and baby were fine. Report 15 October.

237. Heather Stocks gave birth in August at Diana, Princess of Wales Hospital in Grimsby, UK, after a false positive SARS-CoV-2 test (click here). Report 15 October.

236. Nahid Khan, and about 700 other women with Covid-19, have given birth at Nair hospital in Mumbai, india (click here). She and her baby survived. But eight other women and their babies died. Report 16 October.

235. An unnamed woman with Covid-19 at 23 weeks gestation appealed to the Bombay High Court to be allowed a pregnancy termination (click here). Report 14 October.

6 October update

234. Asfia Samreen contracted severe Covid-19 at 24 weeks gestation and required prolonged ventilation in Abu Dhabi (click here). She recovered and later gave birth to a healthy baby. Report 6 October.

5 October update

233. Pooja Charaniya contracted severe Covid-19 at 23 weeks gestation (click here). She spent 13 days on a ventilator at Texas Health Harris Methodist Hospital Fort Worth, Texas, USA and recovered. On July 22nd at 36 weeks she gave birth to Zayd who is healthy and Covid free. Report 30 September.

232. An unnamed mother infected with SARS-CoV-2 gave birth in the Skane region, in the south of Sweden to a baby who was also infected with SARS-CoV-2 (click here). Report 19 August.

29 September update

231. Thirty four pregnant women with Covid-19 have given birth in Mohali Civil Hospital, Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar, India (click here). Report 17 September.

230. Three hundred & seventeen women with SARS-CoV-2 have given birth at Lok Nayak Jai Prakash Narayan (LNJP), the biggest Covid-19 hospital in Delhi, India (click here). 143 were by Caesarean. Only 3 or 4 newborns were infected. Report 28 September.

27 September update

229. Santosh University Hospital, Ghaziabad, India has treated about 50 women with Covid-19 in pregnancy (click here). Some details are given about three infected women with pseudonyms who were delivered by Caesarean at term, and one who had birth induced at 28 weeks gestation. Report 21 September.

26 September update

228. An unnamed pregnant doctor from Indore, India, is reported to have developed Covid-19 twice duiring her pregnancy (click here). She first tested positive on June 19 and recovered. She tested positive again on September 19. She has mild disease, is being treated at home and the pregnancy is ongoing. Report 21 September.

227. Dr Pratiksha Waldekar (age 32), a pathologist from Amravati, died of Covid-19 at a private hospital in Nagpur, India,on September 20th (click here). She was 7 months pregnant. Her baby had died five days earlier. Report 22 September

226. Mrs Celine Ng-Chan contracted Covid-19 at 10 weeks gestation (click here). The pregnancy continued and she is due to give birth next month in Singapore. Report 26 September

14 September update

225. Sarah Curtis from Distington, Cumbria, UK, contracted Covid-19 shortly before giving birth to twins at 30 weeks (click here and here). Both babies were infected but survived. The pregnancy had been complicated by twin-to-twin tranfusion syndrome, and treated with laser ablation of the placental vessels.  Report 14 September.

13 September update

224. An unnamed woman tested positive and gave birth at 36 weeks in Taipei, Taiwan (click here). The baby tested negative. Report 12 September.

223. An unnamed woman with conflicting SARS-CoV-2 test results gave birth in a private hospital in Mohali, a suburb of Chandigarh, India (click here). Report 13 September.

9 September update

222. Ke’Lin Dillard, age 29, from Baton Rouge Louisiana, contracted Covid-19 and was delivered by Caesarean section in late July (click here). The baby tested negative and survived, but the mother remained on a ventilator and died on August 17. Report 7 Sept

221. An unnamed 23-year-old pregnant woman, with Covid-19 and other complications gave birth by Caesarean section at Government Rajaji Hospital (GRH) in Madurai, India, on August 11th (click here). Her age and clinical details differ from the woman in report 210. Report 8 Sept.

220. Maike Zwalf, from Queensland Australia, a transgender man, who also had cystic fibrosis, contracted Covid-19 at term and gave birth normally (click here). Report 8 Sept.

219. Patricia Alvarez from Baytown, near Houston, Texas, contracted Covid-19 in pregnancy, self-isolated at home and gave birth normally at term (click here). Report 9 Sept.

1 September update

218. An unnamed woman with Covid-19 gave birth at Victoria Hospital in Bangaluru, Karnataka, India on 26 August (click here). The baby died. Report 27 August.

217. An unnamed 39-year-old woman with Covid-19, from Lucban town in Quezon province in the Philippines, gave birth at the government run Quezon Medical Center (QMC) in Lucena city on 25 August (click here). The birth was normal. According to Dr. Belen Garana, head OB-GYN at QMC there has been a rise in pregnant women testing positive over the prevuious two weeks. Most were asymptomatic. Report 28 August.

216. Paropakar Maternity and Women’s Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal, is opening an isolation facility with 200 beds for suspected and confirmed cases of Covid-19 (click here). So far 100 women have been suspected and one tested positive.. Report 25 August.

215. Blanca Rodriguez contracted Covid-19 at 28 weeks gestation (click here). She required prolonged ventilation, and her baby was delivered by C-section at Loma Linda University Medical Center in California. Both survived. Report 28 August.

214. In Los Angeles County 1,200 pregnant women have tested positive for the virus and two have died. Of 193 babies tested, eight were positive (click here). Report 26 August.

213. In the Indian state of Meghalaya, 877 babies and 61 pregnant women died over the four month COVID-19 pandemic (click here). Only 10 people in the state had died due to COVID-19 directly. According to Director of Health Services, Dr Aman War the maternal and perinatal mortality rate is a sharp rise above normal, largely due to women avoiding normal care and dying of other causes. Report 29 August.

212. Camila Graciano, from Anapolis, in the central Brazilian state of Goias, contracted Covid-19 at 32 weeks gestation (click here). Birth was induced, but she died. The baby survived. Report 26 August.

21 August update

211. An unnamed woman died from Covid-19 on 20th August, seven days after giving birth in Olongapo City in the Philippines (click here). Report 21 August.

20 August update

210. An unnamed woman with surgically corrected mitral valve disease and Covid-19 gave birth at the Rajaji Hospital in Madurai, India on August 13 (click here). Report 20 August.

209. A one-day-old baby born on August 16, at Assam Medical College & Hospital (AMCH) in Dibrugarh, India, tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (click here). His mother was also positive, but it is not clear whether her test was during or after the pregnancy. Report 20 August.

19 August update

208. Belma Soljanin, age 37, died from Covid-19, 3 days after giving birth at Podhrastovi hospital in Sarajevo. She was head of the institute for mother and child. The baby tested negative and has no symptoms (click here). Report 10 August.  HT Dr Branka Firulovic

18 August update

207. About 28 women have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at some point in the pregnancy among those cared for at the National Maternity Hospital in Holles Street, Dublin (click here). Report 17 August.

206. Out of 170 Covid-19 births at Parklands Hospital Dallas, five babies tested positive (click here).  Among them, 28-year-old Yuri Matamoros was seriously ill. She recovered and gave birth to a son Jesus, who tested negative. Note the minor inconsistency with report 200. Report 17 August.

17 August update

205. An unnamed 37-year-old woman, with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 gave birth by Caesarean at 47 weeks gestation to a healthy boy at the “Attikon” General Hospital in Athens on 16 August. The baby weighed 2,630g, was in excellent health and was isolated (click here). Report 16 August.

16 August update

204. Eighty eight pregnant women with Covid-19 have delivered in the Indian State of Odisha, of whom 32 gave birth in a dedicated Covid hospital in Ganjam, and 15 in the city of Blasore (click here). All mothers recovered. One baby was infected. Report 15 August.

15 August update

203. Zully, from Stamford Connecticut, contracted severe Covid-19 in April at 8 months gestation. She required ventilation, but both her and the baby survived (click here). Report 11 August.

202. María Alvarez age 24 had SARS-CoV-2 while pregnant but was asymptomatic. She gave birth on July 29th at Peru’s National Perinatal and Maternal Institute, in Lima (click here). Mother & baby were fine. According to the report over 2,000 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 gave birth in that hospital between April and the start of August. 120 newborns were reported to have tested positive. Report 12 August.

14 August update

201.  Only one unnamed pregnant woman was diagnosed with Covid-19 in Buenos Aires, Argentina between March 20 and May 5th. She gave birth at Sardá Maternity Hospital. Mother & baby were discharged on April 29 (click here). Over the same period there were 2,200 deliveries in the the 33 public hospitals in Buenos Aires. Report 5th May.

13 August update

200. Wendy Figueroa contracted Covid-19 at 34 weeks and gave birth vaginally at Parkland Hospital in Texas (click here). Her baby Alexa was isolated and tested positive. The case was reported in Study 186 here. This newspaper report also notes that six babies have tested positive at Parkland Hospital out of 128 mothers with SARS-CoV-2 at some point during their pregnancy. Report 13 August.

12 August update (Thank you to Dr Christoph Brezinke & Dr Branka Firulovic for alerting me to reports 195-199 from Serbia and Romania)

199. An unnamed 31-year-old woman with Covid-19 died at 22 weeks gestation in Baia Mare hospital on 30 July (click here). The same day a 39-year-old with Covid-19 died at 28 weeks gestation during ambulance transfer between Arad and Timisioara. Report 30 July.

198. On August 8th an unnamed 33-year-old woman with Covid-19 died at 25 weeks gestation in Alba Iulia hopsital, Romania (click here). Report 8 August.

197. This report (click here) describes the two patients below (R195 & R196), and mentions a further pregnant woman from Vranje who was admitted to the Nis Clinical Center on July 3rd with symptoms of the corona virus, but testing negative, who has been on artificial ventilation since July 18. Report 29 July.

196. On 28 July 2020 an unnamed 34-year-old woman with severe Covid-19 pneumonia died after cesarean at 26 weeks gestation in Nis hospital, Serbia (click here). The baby is in neonatal intensive care. Report 28 July.

195. On 21 July 2020 an unnamed 27-year-old woman died from Covid-19 (click here). Her baby had been stillborn the previous day. Both were cared for at Nis hospital, Serbia. Report 21 July.

11 August update

194. Belma Soljanin contracted Covid-19 at 35 weeks (click here). She was delivered by Caesarean on 6 August at the Clinical Centre University Sarajevo Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic. The baby tested negative and survived, but she died on August 9th in Podhrastovi ward in Sarajevo. Report 9 August.

193. Brittany Lance, from Rockford Illinois, contracted Covid-19 at 28 weeks. She required ventilation and spent 40 days in ICU (click here). Her baby was born prematurely by Caesarean. Report 5 August.

192. Sonam Sreekant contracted mild Covid-19 during her pregnancy (click here). She was nursed at home and recovered. The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 11 August.

191. Nadu Morgan contracted Covid-19 at between 12 and 16 weeks gestation (click here). She was initially treated at Nkhoma Hospital and later transferred to Kamuzu Central Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi. She recovered. The pregnancy is ongoing.  Report 4 August.

190. Haley Peterson contracted Covid-19 at 19 weeks gestation (click here). Her symptoms were mild and the pregnancy is ongoing. Report 5 August.

189. Ebony Brown-Olaseinde contracted Covid-19 at 27 week gestation with twins. She required ventilation and delivery by Caesarean at 28 weeks at Saint Barnabas Medical Center in Livingston, New .Jersey (click here). Mother & babies survived. Report 6 August.

188. Brittany Hartwell, from Brevard county, Florida, contracted Covid-19 while pregnant. Her baby was born by Caesarean at AdventHealth at 27 weeks (click here). Both recovered, but the baby had a grade 4 intra-ventricular bleed. Report 7 August.

187. An unnamed woman died after childbirth at the Manati Hospital in Puerto Rico on 18 July (click here). Report 22 July.

186. A newborn baby in Basildon tested positive two days after birth on May 11 (click here). The mother, Presley Dowdall, had pre-eclampsia and obstetric cholestasis, but tested negative. Both recovered. Report 30 July.

185. An unnamed 24-year-old woman with COVID-19, gave birth to a healthy daughter at Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, India, on August 10th (click here). Report August 10th.

184. Molly Grantham, from North Carolina, contracted Covid-19 postnatally. She developed pneumonia but recovered. Her baby remain uninfected (click here). Report 7 August.

31 July update

183. 19-year-old Janete Vasconcelos da Silva, contracted Covid-19 at 8 months gestation and was cared for at a hospital in Santarem, Para State, Brazil on July 17, 2020 (click here). Report 21 July.

182. There have been 2,842 infections among pregnant and post partum women in Mexico, and 83 deaths (click here). Report 13 July.

181. Three mothers tested positive at the Pumwani maternity hospital in Nairobi, Kenya (click here). No babies were affected. Report 14 July.

180. Amandine tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and gave birth to Mahaut by Caesarean at CHIREC Delta Hospital in Brussels, Belgium April 25, 2020 (click here). Both mother and baby were doing well. Report 26 April.

30 July update

179. Essence Townsend from Scottsdale, Arizona contracted Covid-19 at about 32 weeks (click here). The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 27 July.

178. Three pregnant women with Covid-19 have been turned away by hospitals in Kolkota, West Bengal (click here). The outcomes appear to have been good. Report 28 July.

177. Kia Anderson, from Memphis, Tennessee, contracted Covid-19 at 23 weeks (click here). She self-isolated at home and recovered. The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 27 July

176. 54 pregnant women have been diagnosed with Covid-19 in El Paso, Texas (click here). No newborns have tested positive. Report 28 July.

175. An unnamed woman gave birth at term at the end of May in Sassoon hospital, Pune, India (click here). She had no symptoms but had SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The baby had fever, lethargy and signs of severe Covid-19, tested positive and recovered. Report 28 July.

174. Veronica Markley contracted Covid 19 at 27 weeks gestation (click here). She was cared for at Presbyterian St. Lukes hospital in Denver, Colorado, and required ventilation for some days. She recovered and gave birth at term. She tested positive again on the day of the birth. The baby was fine. Report 29 July.

27 July update

173. An unnamed woman with Covid-19 gave birth on 22 July at Govind Ballabh Pant Hospital in Agartala, in Tripura, NE India (click here). Both “mother and child are safe”. Report 23 July.

172. An unnamed woman with Covid-19 gave birth at Diphu Medical College & Hospital (DMCH) in Karbi Anglong district in Assam, India (click here). Both mother & child are in a ‘stable’ condition. Earlier Runjun Mahanta and Kankana Barman, who both had Covid-19, gave birth to healthy babies in Kokrajhar, Assam. Report 27 July.

25 July update

171. Kaillee Dyke contracted Covid-19 at 27 weeks gestatiowith twins, and required ventilation in the intensive care unit at Royal Melbourne Hospital, Australia (click here). At the time of the report she remained on the ventilator, the pregnancy was ongoing and the babies were undelivered. Report 19 July.

170. Marzanne Lennox contracted Covid-19 at 30 weeks gestation and required 2 weeks ventilation at Life Wilgers Hospital in Pretoria, South Africa (click here). She survived. The baby was stillborn and delivered by Caesarean. Report 16 July.

20 July update

169. One hundred women with Covid-19 have given birth at Vani Vilas Hospital in Bengaluru, India (click here). The hospital has treated up to 350 pregnant women with Covid-19. Report 17 July.

168. A woman with Covid-19 gave birth by Caesarean at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS)-Patna on 19 July (click here). The baby has not yet been tested. Report 20 July.

167. Ten women with Covid-19 gave birth in Gauhati Medical College and Hospital in Assam, India (click here). Report 19 July.

18 July update

166. Sarah Green from San Antonio in Texas is pregnant and contracted COVID-19 (click here). She is self isolating at home and the pregnancy is ongoing. Report 18 July.

165. Rocio Casalduc from New Hampshire contracted Covid-19 during her pregnancy and was anaeshetised. presumably ventilated, and her baby delivered (click here). Both survived. Report 18 July

15 July update

164. Diana Angola, 36, contracted Covid-19 at 26 weeks. She required ventilation and Caesarean section, at the Versaille clinic in Cali, Colombia (click here). She recovered. Her son Jefferson tested negative and remains in hospital. Report 29 June.

163. Sarah Scully, age 35, from Birmingham UK contracted Covid-19 at a late stage of her prengancy (click here). She was delivered by Caesarean section at Birmingham Women’s Hospital on 12 April. After a month of intensive care she died on May 12. The baby survived. Report 20 June.

162. Aurora Chacon Esparza, age 35, from Minnesota, contracted Covid-19 at 30 weeks gestation. She required ventilation and was delivered by Caesarean at North Memorial Hospital in Brooklyn Minneapolis. The baby survived, but she remains critically ill on a ventilator (click here). Report 11 July. Update 11 August. She died on 18 July (click here).

161. Larissa Blanco was pregnant with twins. She had flu like symptoms and tested positive for SARS- CoV-2 on June 12. The Covid-19 was reported to have been mild. The twins were born at a private hospital in Botucatu, Sao Paulo on June 27, but she died soon after from bleeding (click here). The twins survived. Report 2 July.

160. Dora Nginza Hospital in port Elizbeth S Africa has treated 19 pregnant patients who have tested positive for Covid-19 (click here). The hospital treated its first case in pregnancy on 30 March (click here). Reports 9 April & 24 June.

14 July update

159. Esbeidy Reyes contracted Covid-19 at about 28 weeks, and was admitted to the ICU at Memorial Hermann Hospital in the Texas Medical Center. She was treated with immune plasma from someone who had recovered from the virus (click here). She recovered. The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 28 June.

158. The Institute of Obstetrics & Gynaecology (IOG) & Government Hospital for Women and Children, Egmore, in Chennai, has treated 294 women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. None have died.  Kasturba Gandhi Hospital (KGH) for Women and Children, Triplicane has cared for 229 positive women of whom 187 have been discharged, but no further details are available (click here). The Government Kilpauk Medical College Hospital has 30 COVID-19 positive pregnant women. At least 10% of babies are reported to have tested positive. No details were available for Chennai’s largest maternity hospital, Government RSRM Lying-in Hospital, Royapuram. Report 20 June.

157. Morgan Brink, from Johannesburg South Africa, tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at 22 weeks gestation. She recovered and her son was born by Caesarean at 35 weeks on 11 July. He is recovering (click here). Report 14 July.

13 July update

156. Rocio Martinez contracted Covid-19 at 20 weeks (click here). She recovered, and the pregnancy is ongoing. Report July 8.

155. An unnamed woman from Hesperia, California died from Covid-19 on 26 June (click here). The baby survived and tested negative. According to the report she was the 2nd pregnant woman to die from the disease in California. At the time of the report 72 pregnant women in San Bernardino County had contracted COVID-19. Report 10 July.

154. Maggie Sillero was 28 weeks pregnant with triplets when she tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (click here). She remained asymptomatic and was delivered by Caesarean at the Woman’s Hospital of Texas in Houston at 32 weeks. The babies all did well. Report 9 July.

153. The wife of professional tennis player Viktor Troicki is pregnant and has tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (click here). Report 23 June.

26 June update

152. An unnamed 40-year-old woman, with SARS-CoV-2, gave birth to a baby girl at Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria (click here). Both mother and the baby “are doing fine.” Report 27 April.

24 June update

151. An unnamed 24-year-old woman with Covid-19 and an ectopic pregnancy died in the Gautam Budh Nagar district of Uttar Pradesh, India, on 19 June (click here). Report 20 June.

150. Five pregnant girls have contracted Covid-19 at a state-run children’s shelter in Uttar Pradesh’s Kanpur districy (click here). They are being treated at Kanpur Medical College. No further details. Report 22 June.

149. An unnamed woman with Covid-19 was delivered by Caesarean section at 31 weeks in the Semmelweis Hospital in Budapest (click here). The baby tested negative. Report 23 June.

23 June update

R 20 update. Karen Mannering (report 20 here) gave birth to a healthy baby on 16 June (click here). Report 22 June.

148. A unnamed asymptomatic woman with SARS-Cov2 gave birth to triplets in Mexico on May 8th. (click here). The babies tested positive on the day of birth but are reportedly “not in danger”.  Report 23 June.

147. An unnamed 20-year-old woman who tested positive for coronavirus on June 14 gave birth on June 15 in a COVID care centre in Amravati in Maharashtra. Both mother and baby recovered. Another unnamed woman with COVID-19, from Rohankheda village in Morshi tehsil, gave birth to a boy on June 19 (click here). Both also recovered. Report 22 June.

146. Kate Foxall, 36, from Charminster contracted Covid-19 at 38 weeks, and gave birth to Ostara at St Mary’s Maternity Unit in Poole on May 15 (click here). Ostara’s coronovirus status was not reported but she was fine. Report 22 June.

145. An unnamed  29-year-old woman from Sombrerete in Mexico gave birth to triplets prematurely by Caesarean section on May 6th at Zacatecas Women’s Hospital (click here). She tested positive postnatally. The babies all tested negative. Two died from prematurity. Report 14 May

18 June update

144. Monica V. Garcia from Elizabeth, New Jersey contracted Covid-19 during pregnancy (click here). She recovered without special treatment. The baby is due August 3. Report 22 May.

143. Three pregnant women with Covid-19 in the Cayman Islands recovered with no special treatment (click here). No further details. Report 15 June.

15 June update

142. The Nair hospital in Mumbai successfully completed 302 deliveries of Covid-19 positive women. Doctors said none of the babies born in last two months had tested positive at the time of birth (click here). Report 15 June.

141. An unnamed woman with Covid-19 from Old Dhaka gave birth to a baby boy at Dhaka Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh (click here). Both recovered. Report 17 May.

140. An unnamed woman in late pregnancy tested positive in Meghalaya, Bangladesh (click here). No further details given. Report 10 June.

14 June update

139. Liberian nurse Sedia Marwolo, aged 38, was 32 weeks gestation when she contracted Covid-19 (click here). She recovered and later had a healthy baby. Report 23 May.

Update (click here) of report 17 from Baton Rouge (click here). The mother, who had required ventilation but laboured spontanously at 21+6 days, and whose baby had died soon after birth, is named as Kenna Allen. She recovered. Report 10 June.

138. An unnamed women contracted Covid-19 at 28 weeks gestation, and required delivery at 29 weeks at Dubai’s King’s College Hospital London (click here). The baby was not infected and both recovered. Two other women with less severe disease in the same hospital also recovered and their babies were not infected. Report 11 June.

137. Danielle Wood, age 32, contracted Covid-19  at 32 weeks gestation (click here). She self-isolated at home. Her baby born at 38 weeks was not infected. Report 12 June.

8 June update

136. A woman, identified only as Ilse, developed Covid-19 at 31 weeks gestation (click here). She required ventilation at Rodolfo de Mucha Macías hospital in Mexico City. At 34 weeks she was delivered by Caesarean. The baby tested negative and both recovered. The hospital has cared for four other women with Covid-19. Three recovered and their pregnancies are ongoing. No details were given of the fourth. Report 3rd june.

135. Rusia Goes, aged 42, from Rio de Janeiro developed Covid-19 at 8 months gestion (click here). She required ventilation and delivery by caesarean. The baby tested negative and was isolated from her. She eventually recovered. Report 26 May.

7 June update

134. An unnamed 20 year old woman died after giving birth at 7 months gestation to a stillborn baby in Vellore Medical College and Hospital (click here). The birth was by Caesarean section and the cause of death was reported as complications of pregnancy-induced hypertension. She had tested positive for Sars-Cov2. Report 6 June.

133. 79 pregnant women have tested positive for COVID-19 in Kashmir (click here). Mainly from the Anantnag district. No further details. Report 6 June.

132. Neelam Kumari, age 30, from Ghaziabad in Uttar Pradesh, died in the eighth month of her pregnancy of Covid-19 (click here). Report 7 June.

131. Abi Atkin, aged 34, from Sheffield contracted mild Covid-19 at 34 weeks (click here). She recovered without treatment and gave birth normally at term. Report 6 June.

5 June update

130. An unnamed 22-year-old woman from Padarayanapura, Bengaluru, India, contracted Covid-19 at 8 months gestation (click here). No further details. Report 5th June.

2 June update

129. Michelle Hunter contracted Covid-19 at term (click here). Her son, Hank, was delivered by Caesarean section at an unnamed Vernon, British Columbia hospital. He tested negative. Report 30 May.

1 June update

128. Wafa Boudissa, age 28, died of the coronavirus at 8 months gestation (click here). She was a doctor working in the Intensive Care unit of Ras El Oued hospital in eastern Algeria. Report May 18.

127. A unnamed 28-year-old woman, who was six months pregnant, died in Kalsekar hospital, Mumbra, India after three private hospitals refused to admit her because of suspected Covid-19 (click here). Her death certificate says she died of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) with suspected Covid. HT @DeepakNModi. Report 29 May.

31 May update 

126. Vegan lifestyle vlogger Rachel Ama contracted Covid-19 at 11 weeks gestation (click here). She recovered and the pregnancy is continuing. Report 30 May.

30 May update

125. Hilda Garson, age 28, from Manitoba, tested positive for SARS-Cov2 in March (click here). She self isolated, is now 21 weeks, and the pregnancy is ongoing. Three other pregnant women in Manitoba are reported to have tested positive. Report 28 May.

124. Rashmi Kapoor tested positive at term and delivered in Lok Nayak Jai Prakash Narayan Hospital in New Delhi (click here). Report 27 May.

123. Amanda Joyce, from Boston, Massachusetts, contracted Covid-19 on March 19th at about 21 weeks gestation (click here). She self-isolated at home and the pregnancy is ongoing. Report May 29.

28 May update Reports 121 and 122 added.

122. A belated addition. An anonymous woman with Covid-19 in Wuhan (click here) gives birth to an infected baby. Report 5 Feb.

121. Candice Bowie contracted Covid-19 in April in prison in Louisiana at 8 months gestation. On May 4th she was released and went to an unnamed hospital where she was scheduled to deliver by Caesarean (click here). Report 18 May.

26 May update Reports 115-120 added.

120. Diamond, a pseudonym, developed mild Covid 19 at term and delivered at Toronto’s Michael Garron Hospital (click here). Mother and baby survived. Report 21 May.

119. Tasnim Shaheen developed severe Covid-19 at about 28 weeks gestation. She required ventilation and Caesarean at Jamaica Hospital in Queens, New York (click here). Mother and baby are still in hospital but recovering. Report 11 May.

118. An unnamed 20-year-old coronavirus positive woman from Medchal has given birth to twins by Caesarean section at Gandhi Hospital in Hyderabad (click here). The mother was asymptomatic. The twins are awaiting testing. Report 26 May.

117. Lisseth Hernandez developed Covid-19 at 29 weeks gestation with twins. She required ventilation and was delivered at 30 weeks by Caesarean (click here). She recovered. The babies were isolated and did well. Report 19 May.

116. There are 2,561 pregnant women in Russia with coronavirus infection. 2,035 tested positive for SARS-Cov2. Presumably the rest are clinical diagnoses (click here).  There are 816 pregnant women with the coronavirus infection in Moscow alone. Report 25 May.

115. Katie Miller, the spokeswoman for US Vice President Mike Pence, is pregnant and has tested positive for SARS.Cov2 (click here). She has recovered and is back at work. The pregnancy is continuing. Report 26 May.

21 May update Reports 111-114 added.

114. Claire Trusson, age 37, developed Covid-19 at 34 weeks (click here). It was an IVF pregnancy. She gave birth at St Helier Hospital in Carshalton. Both recovered. Report 29 April.

113. Shaquilla James, of Summerton, South Carolina developed Covid-19 at 38 weeks gestation (click here). She gave birth the same day at McLeod Regional Medical Center in Florence, SC, but later was put on a ventilator. Mother & baby both recovered. Report 20 May.

112. Alicia Kappers, age 40, was 31 weeks when she developed Covid-19 on March 24 (click here). She was cared for at the TriHealth Good Samaritan Hospital in Cincinnati, Ohio, where she required prolonged ventilation and a tracheostomy. She went into pre-term labour at 32 weeks and was delivered by Caesarean. The baby tested negative. Both are recovering at home. Report 17 May

111. There have been 115 babies born to Covid-19 infected mothers at the Lokmanya Tilak Municipal General Hospital – also called Sion Hospital – in Mumbai (click here). Three babies were infected, but recovered. Two mothers died, one of whom was aged 28 and died after giving birth.  Report 21 May. (HT Francis Githae Murithi)

18 May update – report 109 added.

110. An unnamed woman with Covid-10 gave birth in the North Ossetia city of Beslan (click here). Both mother and baby are now home. The head of the unnamed hospital’s maternity unit, Hassan Tagaiev, said that 17 of 35 women who were about to give birth there had tested positive for Covid-19.  Report 18 May.

109. Kimberly Phillips, age 44, who had Covid 19, gave birth on May 2nd, at 40 weeks gestation, at the Princess of Wales hospital in Bridgend (click here & here). Her baby, Coolio Carl Justin Morgan, died age 3 days. The primary cause of death was hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, secondary cause maternal Covid-19. Kimberley is reported to have needed intensive care but has now been discharged. Reports 13, 14 May

17 May update reports 107 & 108 added

108. An unnamed 29-year-old from Sindhupalchowk district in Nepal gave birth on May 6, and died of COVID-19 on May 16, in Kathmandu (click here). Report 17 May

107. An unnamed 27-year-old, from Dharavi slum in Maharashtra, tested positive for coronavirus in Belagavi city on 14 May (click here). She was 7 months gestation. Dharavi is in Mumbai . Belagavi is 500 km to the south. Report 15 May

16 May update – reports 105 & 106 added

106. Ten pregnant women with Covid-19 have been were treated at Sheba Medical Center at Tel Hashomer Hospital in Tel Aviv (click here). Four have given birth, one of whom was in critical condition and was transferred to ICU. Report 15 May.

105. An unnamed woman with SARS-COV-2 gave birth at 39 weeks gestation in Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi  (click here). The baby was not infected. Report 15 May.

13 May update – reports 103 and 104 added.

104. Mili América Antelo, age 40, was pregnant with twins at when she developed severe Covid-19 at 28 weeks gestation (click here). She required Caesarean section and spent 11 days in intensive care (7 on a ventilator) at Vall d’Hebron hospital in Barcelona. The twins both tested negative. Mili has now been discharged. Report 11 May.

103. The Los Angles Times reports that roughly 134 pregnant women have tested positive, in LA county (click here). Over 82% of them were symptomatic. There have been 29 live births, and one stillbirth. Twenty-four infants were tested at birth, including one set of twins, and none tested positive. The virus has not been detected in amniotic fluid, breast milk or other “maternal samples”. Report 11 May.

10 May update – cases 97-102 added

102. Six women with COVID-19 have given birth in a government hospital in Peru. Five babies were healthy and have been discharged. The sixth woman remains in a serious condition in the intensive care unit. Her baby was born prematurely and remains hospitalized. None of the babies tested positive for COVID-19 (click here). Report 9 May.

101. Jessa Yager, from Grand island, Nebraska, developed Covid-19 while pregnant  (click here). She is recovering and the pregnancy is ongoing at 36 weeks. Report 7 May.

100. Rachel Bailey from Shelby County, Alabama, was 5-months pregnant when she developed Covid-19 (click here). She is now 30 weeks and recovering. The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 6 May

99. Patient 765, a 20-year-old woman from Padrayanpura, in the late stage of pregnancy, tested positive on 8 May at Vani Villas Women and Children Hospital in Bangalore, Karnataka, India (click here). No further details. Report 9 May.

98. Florette Johnson from Florida, had Covid-19 around term. She had a vaginal birth but later required ventilation (click here). The baby was isolated. Both mother and baby are recovering. Report 9 May.

97. Monique Cook from Atlanta, Georgia, developed Covid-19 at 8 months gestation with twins. She was delivered by Caesarean section at Piedmont Henry hospital on 22 March, and transferred to Piedmont Atlanta hospital for ECMO treatment (click here). She was extubated after 5 days and is now recovering at home.  The twins have also been discharged. Report 8 May

9 May update

96. Gabriela Maia, the wife of Max Johnson, the half brother of British prime minister Boris Johnson, is pregnant, and has Covid-19 (click here). She is recovering. Report 28 March.

95. A baby born at 30 weeks gestation on April 3, in Natal, Brazil, tested positive for SARS- Cov2, and died age 4 days. The mother had respiratory symptoms but her test result was not yet available (click here). The authorities cannot confirm if the infection caused the death. Report 10 April.

8 May update – Cases 86-94 added.

94. Terra Eubanks, a pregnant nurse at Baton Rouge General Hospital in Louisiana, got Covid-19. She recovered (click here). The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 7 May.

93. Johana Rocio Mendoza Chancay, age 40, from Union City, New Jersey, was 26 weeks gestation when she developed Covid-19. She was transferred from Hoboken University Medical Center to Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital in New Brunswick where she gave birth by Caesarean section on March 30th (click here). Her daughter Zion weighed 1lb 13oz. The mother was ventilated and in a coma until April 13. Both recovered. Report 22 April.

92. An unnamed pregnant woman (referred to as P652) had an inconclusive Covid-19 test result at Dr Lal Path Labs in Delhi on 2nd May. The result was interpreted at positive and the woman was nursed on a Covid-19 ward. On May 6, a test at Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute’s Virus Research and Diagnostic Laboratory was declared negative. A third test at the National Institute of Virology’s Bengaluru Field Unit was also negative (click here). Report 8 May.

91. An unnamed pregnant woman is among five Lincolnshire police staff who have tested positive for coronavirus (click here). Report 5 May.

90. Katherine Dawson, aged 36, developed Covid-19 at 32 weeks gestation. She was delivered by Caesarean section at Blackpool Victoria Hospital on 1 April. Her condition deteriorated and she required artificial ventilation (click here). The baby, Ruby, was reported to be infected at birth. Mother and baby recovered, and were discharged on 6 May. Report 6 May.

89. An unnamed  28-year-old women, recovered from Covid-19 and was discharged from Symbiosis Hospital in her 37th week of pregnancy (click here). Report 24 April.

88. An unnamed five-month pregnant woman tested positive for coronavirus at the Pune Municipal Corporation’s Sonawane hospital (click here). She was transferred to Bharati Hospital. Report 14 April.

86. & 87. An unnamed 25-year-old pregnant woman with Covid-19 gave birth by Caesarean section on April 20 at the Sassoon General Hospital in Pune, India, to a healthy boy. Another unnamed woman with Covid-19 delivered by Caesarean section the same day in Aurangabad district civil hospital (click here). Neither baby was infected. Report April 20.

7 May update – cases 80 to 85 added.

85. An unnamed woman with Covid-19 gave birth in Nagaur in Rajustan, India, on April 23 to a baby who also tested positive (click here). Eight other pregnant women from the Ramganj area also tested positive. Report 24 April.

84. An unnamed pregnant woman who had recovered from Covid19 gave birth at her home in Kalnad, Kerala, India after being refused hospital admission (click here). She was later treated at Kannur Medical College Hospital in Pariyaram, before transfer to the General Hospital in Kasaragod for observation. The outcome was not reported. Report 4 May

82 & 83. An unnamed 35-year-old woman from Shangus in south Kashmir’s Anantnag district had Covid-19 at the time of her birth at the SKIMS Medical College Hospital Bemina, Jammu & Kashmir, India (click here). No further details are given. The same report notes that two other pregnant women “have died and nearly 10 have got infected with coronavirus in past two weeks” at the same hospital. It is not clear whether the two women who died had Covid 19. Elsewhere in the same report another woman, Firdousa Javaid is reported to have tested positive in a different maternity hospital, Lalla Ded. Report 6 May.

81. Melissa Brewer from Mountain Green, Utah, whose baby is due in May 2020, had minimal symptoms but tested positive for SARS-CoV2 (click here). The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 5 May.

80. Molly Baldwin, age 28, from Fitchburg, Massachusetts, developed Covid-19 at 33 weeks gestation (click here). She is self-quarantining at home. The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 5 May

5 May update – cases 78 & 79 added

79. An unnamed baby developed Covid-19 at age three months and was treated at Baba Raghav Das Medical College, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh between April 12 and 26th (click here). His mother was SARS-COV-2 negative and continued to breast feed him. The baby recovered and the mother remained negative. Report 5 May.

78. An unnamed woman with Covid-19 gave birth at Aurangabad Civil Hospital in Maharashtra, India (click here). The baby was not infected. Report 5 May.

4 May update – cases 74 to 77 added.

77. Sarita [a pseudonym] from Los Angeles was asymptomatic, but tested positive for SARS-COV-2 during her pregnancy (click here). Her baby, born mid April, was isolated from her and tested negative. At four days of age the baby suffered some sort of respiratory arrest, but recovered. Report 1st May

76. Silvia Leroy, age 35, developed Covid-19 and was transferred from Brookdale, her local hospital, to Mount Sinai hospital in Manhattan (click here). She was on a ventilator for a week, but appeared to be recovering, when she had a cardiac arrest. Her baby, Esther, was delivered by Caesarean section. Sylvia is alive but reported to have brain damage. Report 29 April.

75. Kim Stidworthy, age 25, from New Mexico was 20 weeks gestation when she developed Covid-19 (click here). She spent four days in hospital. The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 1st May.

74. Tamekia Melong, age 37, from Baldwin, Long Island, New York is pregnant and developed Covid-19 in March (click here). The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 3rd May

30 April update – Cases 71 to 73 added. Also up to 10 pregnant women had tested positive for corona virus in the Rotunda Hospital in Dublin (click here) by 1 April. Report 1 April.

73. Alysha Ramos, age 29, pregnant with Covid-19, is in prison in Valparaiso, Indiana (click here & here). Reports 5 & 23 April.

72. Veronica Markley, age 37, from Colorado had Covid-19 at 30 weeks gestation (click here). She was intubated and put on a ventilator at Presbyterian/St. Luke’s Medical Center in Denver, but is recovering. The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 27 April

71. Ashley Duque, age 33, from San Diego developed Covid-19 at 17 weeks gestation (click here). She required 4 days ventilation but is recovering. The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 10 April.

29 April update – Cases 63 to 70 added.  Case 9 – Carrie Symonds, the partner of British Prime Minister Boris Johnson, who gave birth to a healthy baby boy on April 29th, updated. Case 61, an accidental duplicate, deleted. Maternal and baby deaths highlighted in bold.

70. Jennifer Laubach from Clarkston, Michigan, gave birth to twins at 32 weeks at Troy Beaumont Hospital. The babies were isolated because she had symptoms and her partner had Covid-19. She later tested positive (click here). She and the twins recovered. Report 29 April.

69. Abigail Jacobs, age 29, from Kahnawake near Montreal, Canada, developed Covid-19 symptoms in mid March at 24 weeks gestation (click here). Her first test was negative, but a repeat on March 29 was positive. She self-isolated and has recovered. The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 18 April.

68. An unnamed woman from Charlotte, North Carolina, who is three and a half months pregnant tested positive for COVID-19 (click here). Report 14 April.

67. Kim Anderson, age 36 from Idaho Falls developed Covid-19 on March 22nd at about 8 months gestation. She required oxygen therepy in hospital but not ventilation. The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 15 April.

66. A unnamed woman who is four months pregnant is the first pregnant COVID-19 patient admitted to Victoria Hospital in Karnataka, India (click here). Report 31 March.

65. An unnamed pregnant woman age 35 from the Kharpora Kokernag area of Anantnag in Indian administered South Kashmir was admitted to the Maternity and Child Care Hospital in Anantnag (click here). She gave birth to stillborn twins and died soon after. Her test results later confirmed that she was Covid-19 positive. It is reported that Syed Yasir, the commissioner of the region, believes the cause of death was negligence rather than Covid-129. An enquiry is ongoing. Report 27 April.

64. Amanda Joyce, age 33, who works at Newton Wellesley Hospital on the outskirts of Boston, Massachusetts, developed Covid-19 while pregnant (click here). She self-isolated at home, and the pregnancy is ongoing. Report  17 April.

63. Andrea Circle Bear, age 30, from Eagle Butte, South Dakota was pregnant and an inmate in a US Federal prison when she developed Covid-19 (click here). She was transferred to Carswell, a federal prison medical facility in Fort Worth, Texas, and thence to a local hospital where she was delivered by Caesarean section on 2 April. She died on 28 April. The baby’s status was not reported. Report 29 April.

28 April update – cases 58 to 62 added

62. Morgan Brink, age 30, from Roodeport in South Africa, tested positive for coronavirus on 25 March (click here). She had a cough and is self-isolating at home. Report 9 April.

61. Marie Youri, age 19, who had Covid-19, gave birth on 11 April in Yaoundé, the capital of Cameroon (click here). She is on oxygen therapy, & baby Foraya, birth weight 2.1kg, is in isolation. Report 12 April. Accidental duplicate

59 & 60. The deaths of two unidentified women in Mexico (click here). (Report cited in Study 66 here). Report 9th April.

58. Viviane Albuquerque, age 33 from Pernambuco, Brazil, died from Covid-19 at 32 weeks gestation (click here). The baby, delivered by Caesarean, survived. (Report cited in Study 66 (here) which also cites two other newspaper reports of maternal deaths in Brazil, but the links provided miss the reports.) Report 6th April.

26 April update – cases 55 to 57 added

57. Danielle Martin, age 32, from Belfast, Northern Ireland, developed Covid-19 while pregnant with twins at nine weeks (click here). She required artificial ventilation but recovered, and the pregnancy is ongoing. Report 23 April. Update 9 October (click here), she gave birth to healthy twins early in October.

56. Molly Burdick, from Portland in Oregon had Covid-19. 18 days later she was treated for a ruptured (tubal) ectopic pregnancy (click here). She recovered. Report 21 April

55. Sally Nuza, from Ascot, Berkshire developed Covid-19 at 8 months gestation (click here). She recovered, the pregnancy is ongoing, and her unborn baby son is ‘perfectly healthy’. Report 24 April.

24 April update – Cases 53 & 54 added.

54. Wogene Debele from Maryland died of Covid-19 three weeks after giving birth (click here).  Report 23 April

53. Fozia Hanif age 29 developed Covid-19 and gave birth by Caesarean section on 2nd April. She died in Birmingham Heartlands Hospital on April 8th (click here). Report 23rd April

21 April update – Cases 50 to 52 added.

52. Jasmine Jones age 26 from Indianapolis, Indiana, and pregnant with twins, tested positive on March 22nd, at 33 weeks (click here). She was symptomatic, self-isolated at home and the pregnancy is ongoing. Report 20 April.

51.  Silvana Vergara from New York caught the virus at 22 weeks gestation (click here). She was “reassured”, so presumably has recovered and the pregnancy is ongoing, although this is not specifically stated. Report 18 April.

50. Sarah Manning tested positive for SARS-COV-2 a few days before giving birth in Jersey’s midwifery unit (click here). Presumably a normal vaginal birth. Mother and baby are pictured, unmasked, bottle feeding and not separated. Report 20 April.

19 April update Cases 47 to 49 added.

49. An unnamed woman developed symptoms of Covid-19 soon after giving birth in Strong Memorial Hospital, Rochester, New York. Whether she, her partner, or the baby, tested positive has not been disclosed. Report 31 March.

48. Jennifer Kruman, age 33, of Crown Heights, Brooklyn, tested positive 12 hours after giving birth to baby Isaac Hai Kruman, om March 31, at Mount Sinai West Hospital, Manhattan (click here). Isaac tested negative and both went home after 24 hours. Report 17 April.

47. Octobeya Scott, age 30, developed COVID-19 pneumonia at 33 weeks gestation (click here). She was delivered by Caesarean section under general anaesthesia, on March 22 at Jack D. Weiler Hospital of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, The Bronx, and ventilated for a further five hours. The baby, Alicia Anderson, was separated for five days. Both have now returned home. Report 18 April.

18 April update Cases 42 to 46 added.

46. Salina Shaw, age 37, from Southend in Essex, who had tested positive for Covid-19, gave birth on 4 April and died on 12 April (click here). Report 17 April.

45. Kilee Coye, age 25, from Canastota, New York State, has tested positive for the virus, and has some symptoms. She is 35 weeks pregnant (click here). Her partner also has Covid-19 and is on a ventilator. Report 15 April.

44. Lidia Puerta, age 26, from Spain tested positive at eight months gestation (click here, para 10). She was in quarantine in a hospital in Singapore, and the pregnancy ongoing at the time of the report. Report 22 March.

43. Yanira Soriano, age 36, developed Covid-19 at 34 weeks gestation. She required ventilation and the baby was delivered by caesarean at Southside Hospital in Bay Shore, New York. The baby tested negative. Mother and baby have been discharged. Report 16 April.

42. Megan Sites age 27 from Celina, Ohio, contracted Covid-19 at 29 weeks gestation (click here). She required ventilation, and later ECMO, and the baby was delivered by Caesarean section at 29 weeks. The baby, tested negative twice, is currently on NICU. The mother has improved slightly. Now off ECMO, but still ventilated.  Report 16 April.

16 April update Case 40 & 41 added.

41. Actress Patti Murin, age 39, probably has Covid-19, but has not been tested, and is self-isolating at home in California (click here). She is pregnant and due in July, so about 27 weeks gestation. Report 9 April.

40. Mary Agyeiwaa Boateng, née Agyapong, age 28, died on 12 April, in Luton & Dunstable Hospital UK from Covid-19 (click here). Her baby was reported to be “doing very well”. Report 15 April.

14 April update Cases 35-39 added

39. An unnamed woman with Covid-19 is delivered by Caesarean section at 32 weeks gestation at a public hospital in Nairobi (click here). The obstetrician used a pseudonym because she was not authorised to speak to the media.  No further details were given. Report 13 April.

38. Angela Primachenko age 27 from Vancouver was diagnosed with Covid-19 at 33 weeks and became seriously ill. She gave birth at 34 weeks after induced labour, while being ventilated at Legacy Salmon Creek Medical Center (click here). Her daughter was isolated in intensive care and has tested negative. Mrs. Primachneko has been discharged home. Report 13 April.

35-37. This report in The New York Times (click here) describes Precious Anderson, pregnant & critically ill with Covid-19, and two other unnamed women. The piece also mentions 29 pregnant or delivering women with suspected or confirmed Covid-19 in the Brooklyn Hospital Center. No mother or baby had died, and there had been no confirmed cases among newborns. The Brooklyn Hospital Centre is separate from the Presbyterian Allen Hospital & Columbia Irving Medical Center, so presumably these cases have not been reported in an academic paper yet. Report 12 April.

13 April update Cases 32-34 added. HT @danieladrandic.

34. An unnamed woman, delivered by Caesarean section at the MedLife Grivita private maternity hospital in Bucharest on March 13th, developed pneumonia after birth (click here). A test taken on March 20th was positive and she was transferred to Matei Bals Hospital, the Covid-19 treatment center in Bucharest. At the time of transfer mother and baby were reported to be in good condition (click here). Report 24 March.

33. These ten asymptomatic babies, in a maternity unit in the Romanian city of Timisoara, were apparently not infected in pregnancy or by their mothers (click here). “The mothers tested negative, but the babies tested positive so we have to consider their contacts with medical staff.” Report 7 April.

32. An unnamed mother died in the University Clinic of Gynaecology & Obstetrics in Skopje, North Macedonia. Her baby had died before birth. Neither death was directly due to Covid-19, but according to the report the mother, who had been transferred from Ohrid General Hospital, had her treatment delayed while Covid-19 test results (eventually negative) were awaited. This delay may have contributed to her death (click here). An investigation is ongoing. Report 6 April.

12 April update

31. An unnamed woman with Covid-19 was delivered by Caesarean section in the King Abdullah University Hospital in Irbid, northern Jordan (click here). The baby was isolated from the mother and has reportedly tested negative. Mother and baby doing well. Report 29 March.

30. Sophie Biddle, age 37, was diagnosed with Covid-19 on March 7th, but has recovered (click here). Her 20 week scan on March 23 was reportedly normal and the pregnancy is ongoing. Report 30 March.

10 April update cases 26 – 29 added.

29. An unnamed woman in Ritsona refugee camp 40 miles north of Athens tested positive for Covid-19 a day or two after giving birth (click here). Report 2 April.

28. 19-year old Marie Youri with Covid-19 gave birth prematurely in Yaounde, Cameroon (click here and here). She is said to be doing well with oxygen treatment. The baby Foraya weighed 2,100 grams and has not displayed any coronavirus symptoms. Report 8 April.

27. An unnamed 22-year-old woman with Covid-19 from Kyengera, Wakiso District, Uganda gave birth by Caesarean Section at Entebbe Grade B Hospital on April 5th (click here). Mother and baby were said to be in good health. Report 6 April.

26. An unnamed pregnant woman from Nallasopara died at Nair Hospital in Mumbai on April 4 (click here). Her baby was reported to have died in-utero before admission. She had been referred from a local hospital in Nallasopara after her condition deteriorated. It is reported that doctors suspect she died of Covid-19. A committee is investigating. Report 7 April.

A separate report (click here) of a 30 year old, nine month pregnant woman dying of Covid-19 in Mumbai may refer to the same woman. Report 6 April.

9 April update case 25 added.

25. Mallory Pease gave birth at Oaklawn Hospital in Marshall, Michigan to daughter Alivia on March 23 at term. She was symptomatic and tested positive for Covid-19. Alivia was not infected. Route of delivery not reported. Mother and baby both now discharged. Report 8 April.

8 April update cases 19 – 24 added.

24. Raquel Iacurto, age 32, a teacher from New York, was admitted to Long Island Jewish Medical Center with respiratory symptoms at 25 weeks gestation on March 11 and tested positive (click here).  She was discharged after three days. The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 28 March.

23. Simone Shoffman, a beauty blogger from Bothwell, near Glasgow in Scotland is pregnant and has tested positive. She is undelivered at home (click here). Report 6 April.

21. & 22. Two unnamed pregnant women with COVID-19 gave birth in Rebagliati Hospital in Lima, Peru, the first on March 22, the second on March 31st, both by Caesarean (click here). Both mothers were reported to be in good health, and neither baby was infected. Report April 8th.

20. Karen Mannering, from Herne Bay, UK, was admitted to the Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother Hospital in Margate on 21 March with respiratory infection. She tested positive on 25th March, when she was seven months gestation. She has since been discharged home and the pregnancy is ongoing (click here). Report 31 March, updated 1 April.

19. Michelle Wright, aged 37, who is 29-weeks pregnant, has tested positive for coronavirus. The pregnancy is ongoing. She is an inpatient at Russells Hall Hospital in Dudley, UK (click here). Report 7 April.

7 April update cases 16 – 18 added.

18. A newborn baby has reportedly tested positive for coronavirus at James Paget Hospital in Norfolk (click here). No details of the mother have been given. Report 18 March.

17. An unnamed woman with Covid-19 from Baton Rouge, Louisiana, is reported to have gone into preterm labour at 21 weeks (click here). The baby did not survive. The death was reported to the coroner so presumably the baby was born alive. The mother is reported to be on a ventilator. Report 6th April.  The coroner has reportedly decided that the death was due to coronavirus. The mother remains on a ventilator, update 7 April (click here).

16. An unnamed woman with Covid-19 has died during labour at The Whittingdon Hospital, London (click here). The baby survived. Covid-19 has not been ruled out as the cause, and the death has been referred to the Coroner. Report 6 April.

6 April update. Case 10, the first report, scientific or otherwise, of a COVID-19 birth from France, case 11 from Detroit, case 12, the first report from Greece, and two cases 13 & 14 from Egypt added. I’ve also belatedly added a case from Portugal from 17 March.

15. An unnamed woman with Covid-19 (click here) gave birth in Porto’s São João hospital on 17th March. She was described as “doing well”. No further details were given. Report 17 March.

14. An unnamed woman who had recently recovered from COVID-19 gave birth on 4 April by Caesarean section in Hurghada Hospital, (click here). Report 5th April.

13. A 30-year-old eight months pregnant woman infected with COVID-19, treated at Esna Specialized Hospital in Egypt is recovering (click here). The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 3rd April.

12. An unnamed 24 year old woman infected with Covid-19 has given birth at 40 weeks (term) at Attikon General Hospital in Athens, as reported by the state-run news agency ANA-MPA on 27th March (click here). She had tested positive on March 15 and was kept in the hospital for 2 weeks. The baby boy tested negative. No further details are given but both mother and baby are healthy and ready to go home.

11. First reported in the Detroit Free Press, (link broken). For “Click on Detroit” (click here). Jennifer Thompson from Warren, a Detroit suburb, developed symptoms on March 7th at 8 months. She tested positive on March 13th, and her son, Hollis, was born in Beaumont Hospital in Royal Oak, on March 28th. Birth details not reported, but mother and baby back home and doing well. Report 4 April.

10. The artist Ariane Chang @Arianechang describes her baby’s birth by elective Caesarean section under regional block at term on March 19th in “a private birthing clinic in the 15th arrondissement” in Paris, [Presumably Maternité Catholique Sainte Félicité] in the New York Review of Books (click here). She had had symptoms of COVID-19 for two days, and tested positive prior to a second operation under general anaesthesia to control intra-abdominal bleeding, the following day. Baby Clare, reportedly the first baby born to a COVID-19 mother in that clinic, was breast fed but not tested. Mother and baby recovering at home. Ariane Chang illustrates the article with her own paintings and drawings. Report 2nd April.

9. Carrie Symonds, the partner of British Prime Minister Boris Johnson is reported to have had symptoms of Covid-19 for a week (click here and many other sources). According to reports she has not been tested. Since the PM with whom she is living has had confimed COVID-19, it seems likely that she does too. Her due date has been reported as early July. Working back from a hypothetical EDD of 4th July would make her 27 weeks today.  Report 4 April. Update 29 April. She gave birth to a healthy baby boy.

8. Vanesa Muro “a carrier of Covid-19” gave birth to Oscar, birth weight 3.6 kg, by Caesarean on March 13 at the “Madrid hospital in La Paz” [more likely either La Paz university hospital or La Paz maternity hospital in Madrid] (click here).  (El Mundo report click here.) The date of her scheduled Caesarean had been brought forward by three days. Mother and baby were separated for 10 days. Oscar tested negative. Both well. Report 3rd April.

7. Urszula Osborne, age 41, a nurse in Boston Mass, contracted Covid-19 while eight months pregnant (click here). She is recovering and the pregnancy is ongoing. But her husband had severe disease requiring ventilation.  Report 3rd April

6. A 37 year old pregnant woman reportedly infected with Covid-19 died on 29 March after a Caesarean section at the Teresa Herrera Hospital in Coruña. The fetus had reportedly already died (click here). Details conflict, and the family are reported as disputing whether the death was due to Covid-19. An investigation is ongoing (click here). Report 30 March.

5. An unnamed woman age 27 is reported to have died from Covid-19 after giving birth in Łańcut in the south of Poland (click here and here). Report 20th March

4. Allegedly the first birth in Galicia to a mother with Covid-19 (click here). Baby Fabio, born at Álvaro Cunqueiro Hospital in Vigo by Caesarean section at 35 weeks. Birth weight 2.6 kg. Not infected. Mother and baby both doing well. Report 19 March.

3. Model, Michela Persico, partner of Juventus footballer, Daniele Rugani, (click here) is reported to be infected with SARS-COV-2 and is pregnant. The pregnancy is ongoing.  Report 19 March.

2. North Middlesex Hospital UK. Mother with Covid-19 pneumonia gives birth to an infected baby (click here). No further details. Report 14 March.

1 Valentina, is the partner of Matteo, who has been claimed to be Italy’s “patient one”. Matteo was seriously ill with Covid-19, but is reported to be recovering. Valentina is also reported to have developed less severe Covid-19, and is recovering at home. She is reported by La Republica (click here) to be eight months pregnant. At the time of the report, Valentina was undelivered. Report 9 March.

Jim Thornton

Covid-19 in pregnancy scientific studies

May 15, 2020

Primary sources. Updated 25th October

In roughly reverse order. Updated regularly. Click here for’s Covid-19 in pregnancy navigation page.

25th October – study 326 added

Study 326 – seroprevalence in Paris, France

Of women admitted to the delivery room at Antoine Be´clère Hospital maternity ward from 4th to 31st May, 20/249 (8%) were SARS-CoV-2 IgG positive (click here or journal.pone.0240782). 1/190 tested for nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR was positive. She was asymptomatic and her baby tested negative. The period covered the final week of, and first three weeks post, lockdown. Citation: Mattern J, Vauloup-Fellous C, Zakaria H, Benachi A, Carrara J, Letourneau A, et al. (2020) Post lockdown COVID-19 seroprevalence and circulation at the time of delivery, France. PLoS ONE 15(10): e0240782.

24 October update – studies 319 to 325 added

Study 325 – Screening in Porto, Portugal

Full text not yet available. 11/184 (6.0%) of pregnant women screened for SARS-CoV-2 on admission in labour between 19th March and 4th May were positive. Two reported symptoms (click here or ). From author affiliations the hospital was Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, Porto, Portugal Citation: Figueiredo R, Tavares S, Moucho M, Ramalho C. Systematic screening for SARS-CoV-2 in pregnant women admitted for delivery in a Portuguese maternity. J Perinat Med. 2020 Oct 21:/j/jpme.ahead-of-print/jpm-2020-0387/jpm-2020-0387.xml. doi: 10.1515/jpm-2020-0387. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33085639.

Study 324 – A case of neonatal SARS in Lisbon, Portugal

Full text not yet available (click here or ). From author affililations this was Hospital de São Francisco Xavier, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Ocidental, Lisbon. Citation: Correia, Cátia R. MD*; Marçal, Mónica MD*; Vieira, Filipa MD*; Santos, Edmundo MD*; Novais, Cristina MD*; Maria, Ana Teresa MD*; Malveiro, Duarte MD*; Prior, Ana Rita MD*; Aguiar, Marta MD*; Salazar, Anabela MD*; Gouvêa Pinto, Constança MD*; Carvalho Rodrigues, Luís MD†; Pessanha, Maria Ana PhD†; Borges, Vítor PhD‡; Isidro, Joana MSc‡; Gomes, João Paulo PhD‡; Duarte, Sílvia MSc§; Vieira, Luís MSc§; Costa, Inês MSc¶; Alves, Maria João PhD‖; Calhau, Conceição PhD**; Guiomar, Raquel MSc¶; Tuna, Madalena Lopo MD* Congenital SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a Neonate With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: October 22, 2020 – Volume Online First – Issue –
doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002941 

Study 323 – Two mothers treated with ECMO in Los Angeles, California

Two women with Covid-19 required treatment with ECMO (click here or s-0040-1718694). Both mothers and babies survived. From author affiliations they were cared for in the University of California, Los Angeles. The hospital is not named.  Citation: K. Marie Douglass, Katie M. Strobel, Michael Richley, Thalia Mok  , Annabelle de St Maurice, Viviana Fajardo, Andrew T. Young, Rashmi Rao, Lydia Lee, Peyman Benharash, Alison Chu, Yalda Afshar. Maternal-Neonatal Dyad Outcomes of Maternal COVID-19 Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Support: A Case Series Am J Perinatol. DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1718694

Study 322 – 60 cases from Oman

Sixty women with Covid-19 were cared for at The Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman from March 24 to July 31, 2020 (click here or ijgo.13427). Seven required ITU care of whom one was critically ill. No mothers died. There were four miscarriages, one stillbirth and eight pregnancies ongoing. The remainder of the babies survived. All four tested neonates were negative. Citation: Santhosh, J., Al Salmani, M., Khamis, F., Al Ubaidani, S.A. and Al‐Zakwani, I. (2020), Clinical characteristics of COVID‐19 in pregnant women: A retrospective descriptive single‐center study from a tertiary hospital in Muscat, Oman. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/ijgo.13427

Study 321 – Four cases from Iran

Four pregnant women contracted Covid -19 (click here or Iran case series). All four recovered. One was postnatal, one delivered vaginally and two remained undelivered. They were cared for in Shahid Mostafa Khomeini Hospital in Ilam which has not previously reported cases. Citation: Gheysarzadeh A, Sadeghifard N, Safari M, Rashidian T, Mohammadyari E, Tavan H, Report of four pregnant women getting COVID-19 in Ilam, Iran: Case Series, New Microbes and New Infections, 

Study 320 – Case report from Philadelphia

A woman with Covid-19 at 36 weeks required 6 days ventilation and delivery by Caesarean (click here or 8889487). She survived, but at the time of the report remained in an inpatient rehabilitation facility. The baby tested negative. From author affiliations she was likely cared for in the Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia which has not previously reported cases. Citation: Jerald Pelayo ,Gabriella Pugliese, Grace Salacup, Eduardo Quintero, Adeeb Khalifeh, David Jaspan, and Bhavna Sharma. Severe COVID-19 in Third Trimester Pregnancy: Multidisciplinary Approach. Case reports in Critical Care. Volume 2020 |Article ID 8889487 |

Study 319 – No cases in Melbourne, Australia

No positive test results among 350 pregnant women from three hospitals in Melbourne over the two-week period 6th to 19th May 2020 (click here or Rolnik 1-s2.0-S1871519220303553-main). This period was after the first wave had subsided in Australia. Citation: D.L. Rolnik, T.M. Korman, A. Rindt et al., Coronavirus testing in women attending antenatal care, Women Birth, 

20th October update – study 318 added

Study 318 – Case report from Chizhou, Anhui Province, China

A woman contracted Covid-19 on Jan 6th, six months after delivery while still breastfeeding ((click here or 15010_2020_Article_1532). Breastfeeding was stopped and the infant artificially fed at home. The infant’s infection status and outcome were not reported. The mother recovered. Citation: Liu X, Zhou L, Zhu Y. Report on a lactating patient with COVID-19 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Oct 9]. Infection. 2020;1-5. doi:10.1007/s15010-020-01532-2

19th October update – study 317 added

Study 317 – 101 neonates from New York

Of 101 neonates born to 100 mothers positive for SARS-CoV-2 from March 13 to April 24, 2020, two had borderline results and the rest tested negative. No baby had clinical disease (click here). Fourteen babies were reported in study 27. Citation: Dumitriu D, Emeruwa UN, Hanft E, et al. Outcomes of Neonates Born to Mothers With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection at a Large Medical Center in New York City. JAMA Pediatr. Published online October 12, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.4298

18th October update – studies 315 and 316 added

Study 316  – Case report from Japan.

A woman with Covid-19 was delivered by caesarean section on April 2nd (click here or jog.14393). This was the first birth to a woman with Covid-19 in Japan. Mother and baby survived. The baby was not infected. They were cared for in the Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Developmental Medicine, Kitasato University Hospital which has not previously reported cases. Citation: Mochizuki, J., Nakamura, M., Iwahata, S., Nishijima, J., Ito, T., Wada, T., Takayama, Y. and Unno, N. (2020), First report in Japan of a delivery of a woman with the 2019 novel coronavirus disease. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.. doi:10.1111/jog.14393

Study 315 – 31 severe cases from New York

Of 31 pregnant women with severe or critical disease, four had abnormal cardiac biomarkers, of whom two died (click here or PIIS0002937820311881). The women were cared for in the Northwell health system so may have been included in studies 162, 179 and 289. Citation: PACHTMAN SHETTY SL, MEIROWITZ N, BLITZ MJ, GADOMSKI T, WEINBERG CR, Myocardial injury associated with coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2020), doi:  

17 October update – studies 311 to 314 added

Study 314 – 141 cases from Yale, New Haven, USA

Of 141 women with Covid-19 in pregnancy, one died (click here or PIIS2589933320302147 (1)). Of 76 live births, no babies were affected. They were cared for in Yale New Haven, Bridgeport, and Greenwich hospitals. One woman, who had a 22 week termination for severe pre-eclampsia, was reported in study 155. Some may also have been included in study 132. Citation: GRECHUKHINA O, GREENBERG V, LUNDSBERG LS, DESHMUKH U, CATE J, LIPKIND HS, CAMPBELL KH, PETTKER CM, KOHARI KS, REDDY UM, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pregnancy outcomes in a racially and ethnically diverse population, American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM (2020), doi:

Study 313 – Case report from Mumbai, India

In this MedRxiv preprint, an asymptomatic woman tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at 8 weeks gestation. At 13 weeks the fetus had died (click here or 2020.08.18.20177121v1.full). The authors detected virus in the placenta and argue the fetal demise was due to congenital transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Citation: Prajakta Shende, Pradip Gaikwad, Manisha Gandhewar, Pawankumar Ukey, Anshul Bhide, Vainav Patel, Sharad Bhagat, Vikrant Bhor, Smita Mahale, Rahul Gajbhiye, Deepak Modi Persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in the first trimester placenta leading to vertical transmission and fetal demise from an asymptomatic mother. medRxiv 2020.08.18.20177121; doi:

Study 312 – analysis of a range of specimens from 31 affected pregnancies in Milan, Italy

31 pregnancies with SARS-CoV-2 (click here or s41467-020-18933-4). From author affiliations the patients were probably cared for in Milan. Citation: Fenizia, C., Biasin, M., Cetin, I. et al. Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission during pregnancy. Nat Commun 11, 5128 (2020).

Study 311 – 21 placentas from St Louis, USA

No differences were seen between 21 placentas from SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnancies and 20 control ones (click here or Histopathology of Third Trimester Placenta from SARS CoV 2 Positive Women). The hospitals are not reported. Citation: Mai He, Priya Skaria, Kasey Kreutz, Ling Chen, Ian S. Hagemann, Ebony B. Carter, Indira U. Mysorekar, D. Michael Nelson, John Pfeifer & Louis P. Dehner (2020) Histopathology of Third Trimester Placenta from SARS-CoV-2-Positive Women, Fetal and Pediatric Pathology, DOI: 10.1080/15513815.2020.1828517

13 October update – studies 309 and 310 added

Study 310 – 86 pregnant women treated with remdesivir

Of the first 86 pregnant, or recently pregnant, women with severe Covid-19 (O2 satuation <=94%), treated with compassionate use remdesivir (all outside a trial) between March 21, & April 22nd 2020, 63 were admitted to ICU, 45 required ventilation and one ECMO (click here or ciaa1466). One woman died. At 28-day follow-up seven women were still being ventilated (appendix Fig 2 ciaa1466_suppl_supplementary_materials_1 (1)).  Among 45 deliveries there was one 17 weeks miscarriage but otherwise no babies died. Four women were treated in Spain, two in Switzerland and one each in Italy and the UK. The rest were from the United States. Many have presumably been included in other reports. Citation: Richard M Burwick, Sigal Yawetz, Kathryn E Stephenson, Ai-Ris Y Collier, Pritha Sen, Brian G Blackburn, E Milunka Kojic, Adi Hirshberg, Jose F Suarez, Magdalena E Sobieszczyk, Kristen M Marks, Shawn Mazur, Cecilia Big, Oriol Manuel, Gregory Morlin, Suzanne J Rose, Mariam Naqvi, Ilona T Goldfarb, Adam DeZure, Laura Telep, Susanna K Tan, Yang Zhao, Tom Hahambis, Jason Hindman, Anand P Chokkalingam, Christoph Carter, Moupali Das, Anu O Osinusi, Diana M Brainard, Tilly A Varughese, Olga Kovalenko, Matthew D Sims, Samit Desai, Geeta Swamy, Jeanne S Sheffield, Rebecca Zash, William R Short, Compassionate Use of Remdesivir in Pregnant Women with Severe Covid-19, Clinical Infectious Diseases, , ciaa1466,

Study 309 – 2475 pregnant women with Covid-19 from Brazil

Among 2475 women identified through an acute respiratory distress register, 494 were admitted to ITU, 242 underwent invasive ventilation and 204 died (click here or ijgo.13407). Among the women who died, 8 (6%) had not reached hospital, 81 (40%) had not been admitted to intensive care, and 52 (26%) had no access to any respiratory support before dying. These are updated figures from studies 182, 248 & 249. Citation: Menezes, M.O., Takemoto, M.L., Nakamura‐Pereira, M., Katz, L., Amorim, M.M., Salgado, H.O., Melo, A., Diniz, C.S., de Sousa, L.A., Magalhaes, C.G., Knobel, R., Andreucci, C.B. and (2020), Risk factors for adverse outcomes among pregnant and postpartum women with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to COVID‐19 in Brazil. Int J Gynecol Obstet. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/ijgo.13407

12 October update – studies 303 to 308 added.  Study 167 publication updated.

Study 308 – Case report from Daegu, Korea

One case report of Covid-19 in pregnancy plus 12 further cases mentioned in the final pragraph (click here or ogs-20106). All cared for at Daegu Fatima Hospital or Daegu Dongsan Hospital and likely overlap with those in studies 22 & 143.  Citation: Jin-Gon Bae , Jin-Kyeong Ha, Myoung Kwon, Hak-Youle Park, Won-Joon Seong, Seong-Yeon Hong. A case of delivery of a pregnant woman with COVID-19 infection in Daegu, Korea. Obstet Gynecol Sci > Epub ahead of print  Case Report DOI: [Epub ahead of print] Published online October 5, 2020.

Study 307 – 257 cases from Europe and other continents

These cases (click here or PIIS0301211520306400) probably overlap considerably with those reported in study 278. Citation: Di Mascio D, D’Antonio F, Perinatal mortality and morbidity of SARS-COV-2 infection during pregnancy in European countries: findings from an international study, European Journal of Obstetrics and amp; Gynecology and Reproductive Biology (2020), doi:

Study 306 – Neonatal death in Ivan city, Ilam province, Iran

The mother had Covid-19 (click here or 13256_2020_Article_2519). The baby, delivered by elective caesarean at 39 weeks, had normal Apgar scores but collapsed soon after birth and died. Maternal SARS-CoV-2 swabs were positive, and baby swabs negative. The birth was at Zagros Hospital and the baby was later transferred to Ayatollah Taleghani Hospital, both in Ivan City, and neither of which have previously reported caes. Citation: Rashidian, T., Sharifi, N., Fathnezhad-Kazemi, A. et al. Death of a neonate with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 born to a mother with coronavirus disease 2019 in Iran: a case report. J Med Case Reports 14, 186 (2020).

Study 305 – Two cases from Wuhan

These two women with Covid-19 in pregnancy have probably been reported already (click here or s12884-020-03281-4). Citation: Cao, D., Chen, M., Peng, M. et al. Vaginal delivery in women with COVID-19: report of two cases. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 20, 580 (2020).

Study 304 – 32 pregnant women admitted to ITU in the United States

Thirty two pregnant women with Covid-19 were admitted to ITU in multiple US hospitals (click here or rccm.202006-2182le). Citation: Sarah Rae Easter, Shruti Gupta, Samantha K. Brenner, David E. Leaf Outcomes of Critically Ill Pregnant Women with COVID-19 in the United States. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine Published Online: October 07, 2020

Study 303 – Case report from Turkey

This case report from (judging by author affiliations) Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University School of Medicine, Rize, Turkey (click here or 354-356) may have been reported in studies 244 and 277Citation: Özçelik N, Özdemir S, Gürlek B, Yıldız İE. COVID-19 Pregnant Patient Management with a Case of COVID-19 Patient with An Uncomplicated Delivery. Turk Thorac J. 2020 Sep;21(5):354-356. doi: 10.5152/TurkThoracJ.2020.20135. Epub 2020 Sep 1. PMID: 33031729.

11 October update – study 302 added

Study 302 – Two cases of repeat SARS-CoV-2 positivity in pregnancy from Brescia in Italy

A pregnant women who had recovered from mild Covid-19 in March 2020 at 24 weeks, retested positive when she gave birth in July at 41 weeks. Another asymptomatic women with SARS-CoV-2 in April at 32 weeks gestation, who had later tested negative, tested positive again at birth in June (click here or 1471-0528.16362). From author affiliations both cases were probably cared for in Brescia which means they were likely included in studies 32, 64 & 252. Citation: Zanardini, C., Saccani, B., Franceschetti, l., Zatti, S., Sartori, E. and Prefumo, F. (2020), Retest positive for SARS‐CoV‐2 RNA of recovered pregnant women with COVID‐19. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/uog.23144

10 October update – study 301 added

Study 301 – 736 women in the US PRORITY study

The clinical features of 736 pregnant women with Covid-19 (594 SARS-CoV-2 positive), recruited through social media in the PRIORITY study, are reported (click here or 1471-0528.16362). They will overlap with study 281 and many other US reports. Citation: Afshar, Yalda MD, PhD; Gaw, Stephanie L. MD, PhD; Flaherman, Valerie J. MD; Chambers, Brittany D. PhD, MPH; Krakow, Deborah MD; Berghella, Vincenzo MD; Shamshirsaz, Alireza A. MD; Boatin, Adeline A. MD, MPH; Aldrovandi, Grace MD; Greiner, Andrea MD; Riley, Laura MD; Boscardin, W. John PhD; Jamieson, Denise J. MD; Jacoby, Vanessa L. MD, MAS, on behalf of the Pregnancy CoRonavIrus Outcomes RegIsTrY (PRIORITY) Study Clinical Presentation of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Pregnant and Recently Pregnant People, Obstetrics & Gynecology: October 07, 2020 – Volume Latest Articles – Issue – 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004178 doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004178

9 October update – study 300 added

Study 300 – 26 cases from Dublin, Ireland

26 women had SARS-CoV-2 detected during pregnancy by PCR in the Rotunda Hospital between 1st March & 1st July 2020 (click here or Infants-Born-to-Mothers-with-COVID-19-During-Pregnancy-The-First-Four-Months-of-the-Pandemic). Maternal survival was not reported but, by implication, was good. All infants survived and none were infected. These case are probably included in study 284. Citation: C. Murphy, D. O’Reilly, N. McCallion, R. Drew, W. Ferguson. Infants Born to Mothers with COVID-19 During Pregnancy: The First Four Months of the Pandemic Ir Med J; Vol 113; No. 9; P193

8 October update – study 299 added

Study 299 – 29 women with anti SARS-CoV-2 antibodies from Copenhagen, Denmark

Of the 29 women reported in this Medxiv preprint, 15 had previously had Covid-19 symptoms, but none had a positive swab (click here or 2020.09.14.20191106v1.full). They were cared for at Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, which has not previously reported cases. Citation; Pia Egerup, Line Fich Olsen, Ann-Marie Hellerung Christiansen, David Westergaard, Elin Rosenbek Severinsen, Kathrine Vauvert Roemmelmayer Hviid, Astrid Marie Kolte, Amalie Dyhrberg Boje, Marie-Louise Mathilde Friis Bertelsen, Lisbeth Praetorius, Anne Zedeler, Josefine Reinhardt Nielsen, Didi Bang, Sine Berntsen, Jeppe Ethelberg-Findsen, Ditte Marie Storm, Judith Bello-Rodriguez, Andreas Ingham, Joaquim Olle-Lopez, Eva Hoffmann, Charlotte Wilken-Jensen, Lone Krebs, Finn Stener Joergensen, Henrik Torkil Westh, Henrik Lovendahl Jorgensen, Nina la Cour Freiesleben, Henriette Svarre Nielsen medRxiv 2020.09.14.20191106; doi:

5 October update – studies 292 to 298 added

Study 298 – 67 cases from Stockholm, Sweden

The authors claim that these 67 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 comprise all those cared for in the Stockholm region between March 19 & April 26, 2020 (click here or aogs.14006). Four women were admitted to intensive care but none died. Three babies were infected. Two babies died. From author affliliations the unnamed hospitals probably include Karolinska, Södersjukhuset (Southern), Danderyd, and Södertälje hospitals. The series likely includes some women reported in studies 20, 88, and 282. Study 282 reported 156 women with SARS-Cov-2 admitted in labour to the Karolinska alone, albeit over a longer time period March 25 to July 24 (study 282). Citation: Remaeus, K., Savchenko, J., Brismar Wendel, S., Gidlöf, S.B., Graner, S., Jones, E., Molin, J., Saltvedt, S., Wallström, T. and Pettersson, K. (2020), Characteristics and short‐term obstetric outcomes in a case series of 67 women tested positive for SARS‐CoV‐2 in Stockholm, Sweden. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/aogs.14006

Study 297 – anti SARS-CoV-2 IgA in breastmilk within 72 hr of birth

A woman with a clinical diagnosis of Covid-19, but with negative PCR tests, delivered by Caesarean at 37 weeks (click here or 0890334420960433). Anti SARS-CoV-2 IgA was detected in breast milk soon after birth. The baby was not infected. From author affiliations the hospital was probably Municipal Universitário de São Bernardo do Campo, Brazil, which has not previously reported cases. Citation: Lebrão CW, Cruz MN, Silva MH da, et al. Early Identification of IgA Anti-SARSCoV-2 in Milk of Mother With COVID-19 Infection. Journal of Human Lactation. September 2020. doi:10.1177/0890334420960433

Study 296 – Case report from Portland, Maine, USA

A woman wih Covid-19 developed pre-eclampsia at 34 weeks (click here or main). Both her and the baby recovered. From author affiliations the hospital was probably Maine Medical Center, Portland, Maine, which has not previously reported cases. Citation: J.N. Hansen, J. Hine and T.D. Strout, COVID-19 and preeclampsia with severe features at 34-weeks gestation, American Journal of Emergency Medicine,

Study 295 – Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in pregnancy & SARS-CoV-2

The first report of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in pregnancy in association with SARS-CoV-2 infection (click here or e239104.full). The mother was delivered by caesarean and recovered. Baby outcomes were not reported. The hospital was probably Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, India, which has not previously reported cases. Citation: Bhattacharyya PJAttri PKFarooqui W. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in early term pregnancy: a rare cardiac complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Study 294 – 16 women with SARS-CoV-2 infection from Wuhan

16 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection (click here or Zhou2020_Article_TheMetabolicAndImmunologicalCh). From author affiliations and ethics committee review the hospital was probably Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University grid.412632.0, which means the cases probably overlap with those in studies 6a, 10, 12, 36, 37, and 40. Citation: Zhou, J., Wang, Y., Zhao, J. et al. The metabolic and immunological characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 and their neonates. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis (2020).

Study 293 – Infected triplets from Muscat, Oman

All three triplets born by Caesarean at 32 weeks to a woman with Covid-19 were infected (click here or IS_VERTICAL_TRANSMISSION_OF_SARS_CoV_2_INFECTION.96038). They all thrived. The woman was cared for at Khoula Hospital, Muscat, Oman, which has not previously reported cases. Citation: Alwardi, Talal Hamood; Ramdas, Vidya; Al Yahmadi, Mohammed; Al Aisari, Salima; Bhandari, Satish; Saif Al Hashami, Hilal; Al Jabri, Amal; Manikoth, Prakash; Malviya, Manoj. IS VERTICAL TRANSMISSION OF SARS-CoV-2 INFECTION POSSIBLE IN PRETERM TRIPLET PREGNANCY? A CASE SERIES, The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: September 25, 2020 – Volume Online First – Issue – doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002926 

Study 292 – Blood loss at birth among 53 women in Boston, Mass, USA

The blood loss at birth among 53 women with Covid 19 was no different from women without the disease (click here or s-0040-1718403). Women were cared for in Boston Medical Center which has not previously reported cases. Citation: Wang MJ, Schapero M, Iverson R, Yarrington CD. Obstetric Hemorrhage Risk Associated with Novel COVID-19 Diagnosis from a Single-Institution Cohort in the United States. Am J Perinatol. 2020 Sep 29. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1718403. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32992351.

28 September update – study 291 added

Study 291 – Spanish registry of Covid-19 screening in asymptomatic pregnant women

By May 31st 2020, of 16,308 pregnant women screened, 338 (2.1%) had tested positive (click here or RS94C_202009092). Testing was done in 100 maternity hospitals listed in Table 2. This is a different registry from study 264b, which only covered 45 hospitals. However the hospitals, time period and presumably cases overlap.  Spanish with English abstract. Citation: Encinas Pardilla MB, Caño Aguilar Á, Marcos Puig B, Sanz Lorenzana A, Rodríguez de la Torre I, Hernando López de la Manzanara P, Fernández Bernardo A, Martínez Pérez Ó. Registro español de cribado de Covid-19 en gestantes asintomáticas. Rev Esp Salud Pública. 2020; 94: 18 de septiembre e202009092

27 September update – studies 284-290 added. I’ve also noticed ten duplicate numbers, studies 257 to 266 & renumbered the later ones as 257b to 266b

Study 290 – 25 symptomatic women in St Louis, Missouri

25/532 (4.7%) women admitted for an obstetric procedure were asymptomatic but positive for SARS-CoV-2 at Barnes-Jewish Hospital in St Louis, Missouri from May 28 – July 22 (click here or PIIS0002937820311029). This series will not include the severely ill woman in study 69, but probably includes some in study 259. Citation: KELLY JC, RAGHURAMAN N, PALANISAMY A, STOUT MJ, CARTER EB, Pre-procedural asymptomatic COVID-19 in obstetric and surgical units, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2020), doi:

Study 289 – seroprevalence during labour at 7 hospitals in New York State

269/1671 (16%) women were seropositive in labour (click here or Haizler-Cohen PIIS0002937820311017). They delivered in the Northwell Health system so probably were included in studies 162 and 179. Citation: HAIZLER-COHEN L, DAVIDOV A, BLITZ MJ, FRUHMAN G, SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Pregnant Women Admitted to Labor and Delivery, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2020), doi:

Study 288 – serological testing among pregnant women in Estonia

The SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalemce was reported to be nearly five time higher than the rate of PCR positivity, and also 10 times lower than the rate of seropositivity in the general population of Spain (click here or aogs.13995) Citation: Veerus, P., Salumets, A., Naaber, P., Krjutškov, K., Tilk, K., Laanpere, M. and Uusküla, A. (2020), Seroprevalence of SARS‐CoV‐2 antibodies among pregnant women in Estonia: a call for epidemiological studies. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/aogs.13995

Study 287 – 2 cases from Tehran, Iran

A woman with severe Covid-19 at 31 weeks was delivered by Caesarean and died in Shariati hospital, Tehran. Her baby was seriously ill with complications of prematurity and neonatal Covid-19. He recovered, albeit with hydrocephalus (click here or s13052-020-00897-2). A second women had milder disease diagnosed clinically. Her baby also had complications of prematurity and neonatal Covid-19 and recoverd. The mothers may have been included in studies 66, 67 and 218. The babies may have been reported in study 250. Citation: Sagheb, S., Lamsehchi, A., Jafary, M. et al. Two seriously ill neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 pneumonia- a case report. Ital J Pediatr 46, 137 (2020).

Study 286 – 52 cases from Turkey

27 women with Covid-99 in pregnancy confirmed on PCR, and 25 diagnosed clinically (click here or Alay jog.14493 (1)). From author affiliations the unnamed tertiary referral hospital is probably Dr. Sadi Konuk Education and Training Hospital, Istanbul, which has not previously reported cases on its own behalf. They may be included in other Istanbul series such as study 244. It also appears to be a different hospital from Sehit Prof. Dr. Ilhan Varank Sancaktepe Training and Research Hospital which is nearby, and reported cases in studies 144 and 210. Citation: Alay, I., Yildiz, S., Kaya, C., Yasar, K.K., Aydin, O.A., Karaosmanoglu, H.K., Aydeniz, B., Salihoglu, O., Yaşar, L. and Ekin, M. (2020), The clinical findings and outcomes of symptomatic pregnant women diagnosed with or suspected of having coronavirus disease 2019 in a tertiary pandemic hospital in Istanbul, Turkey. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.. doi:10.1111/jog.14493

Study 285 – 61 cases from New Jersey, USA

A case control study including 61 women with confirmed COVID-19 in pregnancy (click here or Brandt PIIS0002937820311340). The women were cared for at the Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, in New Brunswick, which also reported cases in study 86. Citation: BRANDT JS, HILL J, REDDY A, SCHUSTER M, PATRICK HS, ROSEN T, SAUER MV, BOYLE C, ANANTH CV, Epidemiology of COVID-19 in Pregnancy: Risk Factors and Associations with Adverse Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2020), doi:

Study 284 – 70 cases from the Republic of Ireland’s Covid-19 register

70 women tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy in March and April 2020 (click here). There were no maternal deaths (pers comm Keelin O’Donoghue). The first report from the Republic of Ireland. Citation: ROI COVID-19 Study Accessed 27 Sept 2020

24th September update – study 283 added

Study 283 – 321 cases from Maharashtra state, India

This first report from the Indian PregCOVID registry reports 141 pregnant women testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 in 15 hospitals in Maharashtra state (click here or PIIS0301211520306084). To these are added a further 180 cases from Topiwala National Medical College & BYL Nair Charitable Hospital, grid.413161.0, a dedicated Covid-19 hospital in Mumbai. The registry hospitals are listed and appear to have not previously reported cases. Note Lokmanya Tilak Municipal General Hospital and Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College, in Mumbai grid.415652.1, study 245, does not appear to be part of the registry. The Nair hospital cases may overlap with those in study 225. Citation: Waghmare R, Gajbhiye R, Mahajan N, Modi D, Mukherjee S, Mahale S, Universal screening identifies asymptomatic carriers of SARS-CoV-2 among pregnant women in India, European Journal of Obstetrics and amp; Gynecology and Reproductive Biology (2020), doi:

23 September update – study 282 added

Study 282 – 156 cases from Stockholm, Sweden

Of 156 pregant women seen at the Karolinska Hospital in Stockoholm who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, 65% were asymptomatic (click here or jama_ahlberg_2020_ld_200101_1600871779.60882). There was one stillbirth. Maternal deaths were not reported. Compared with a control group matched on various factors there was an increase in pre-eclampsia but no increase in preterm birth. This is the first report from this hospital. The cases don’t overlap with those reported in studies 20 or 259, but likely overlap with some in study 88. Citation: Ahlberg M, Neovius M, Saltvedt S, et al. Association of SARS-CoV-2 Test Status and Pregnancy Outcomes. JAMA. Published online September 23, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.19124

21 September update – study 281 added

Study 281 – First report from the US PRIORITY Study 

The PRIORITY study collected self-reported cases of Covid-19 in pregnancy. In this report they describe the outcomes of 179 infants born to mothers who had tested positive and 84 who tested negative. 82% of the former group and 63% of the latter had symptoms (click here or ciaa1411). 44 babies were admitted to NICU, and two were infected. Although not explicitly stated there appear to have been no stillbirths or neonatal deaths. Births occurred at over 100 hospitals across the US so it is likely that many will have been included in other US reports. Citation: Valerie J Flaherman, MD, MPH, Yalda Afshar, MD, PHD, John Boscardin, PHD, Roberta L Keller, MD, Anne Mardy, MD, Mary K Prahl, MD, Carolyn Phillips, MD, Ifeyinwa V Asiodu, RN, PHD, W Vincenzo Berghella, MD, Brittany D Chambers, PHD, Joia Crear-Perry, MD, Denise J Jamieson, MD, MPH, Vanessa L Jacoby, MD, MAS, Stephanie L Gaw, MD, PHD, Infant Outcomes Following Maternal Infection with SARS-CoV-2: First Report from the PRIORITY Study, Clinical Infectious Diseases, ciaa1411,

20 September update – study 274 belatedly added (we’d missed it on 8 June). Studies 275 to 280 also added

Study 280 – Case report from Wuhan, China

A woman with Covid-19 gave birth on March 6th. The baby was not infected (click here or 5f3fc192e7305c00087df995). The hospital was Wuhan Central Hospital grid.440160.7 which presumably reported this case in study 39. Citation: Gao WDeng ZZeng LYang YGong HLiu JXiao H. A newborn with normal IgM and elevated IgG antibodies born to an asymptomatic infection mother with COVID-19. Aging (Albany NY). 2020; 12:16672-16674.

Study 279 – The first case of Covid-19 in pregnancy in the United States

A woman with Covid-19 presented to New York City Health and Hospitals/Lincoln in New York City on March 12, 2020 (click here or 9795-IN PRESS-52450-5-10-20200908). She had mild disease, was treated as an outpatient and recovered. She was delivered by Caesarean at 37 weeks and the baby was not infected. The authors claim this was the first case of Covid-19 in pregnancy in the US. They may be correct. However the paper title is misleading because it was not a case of intrauterine transmission. Citation: Elkafrawi D, Joseph J, Schiattarella A, Rodriguez B, Sisti G. Intrauterine transmission of COVID-19 in Pregnancy: case report and review of literature. Acta Bio Med [Internet]. 2020Sep.7 [cited 2020Sep.20];91(3):e2020041. Available from:

Study 278 – 388 mothers testing positive for SARS-COV-2 from 22 countries.

The World Association of Perinatal Medicine Covid-19 working group has collected 388 women, pregnant with singletons, and diagnosed with SARS-CoV-19 between February 1 and April 30, 2020, from 73 centers in 22 countries (Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy, North Macedonia, Peru, Portugal, Republic of
Kosovo, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, and United States (click here or uog.23107). Three mothers died. Of 266 completed pregnancies there were 6 miscarriages, 3 pregnancy terminations, and 6 stillbirths. Of 251 livebirths, 5 neonates died. The centres are listed in the supplement here uog23107-sup-0001-supinfo and many appear to have not previously reported cases. However the number of cases per centre is not reported and there is no explicit statement about previous reports. Citation: Di Mascio, D. and the WAPM (The World Association of Perinatal Medicine) working group on COVID‐19 (2020), Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes of Pregnant Women with SARS‐COV‐2 infection. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/uog.23107

Study 277 – 37 Neonates with community acquired Covid-19 in Turkey

This series of 37 neonates with Covid-91 acquired in the community were collected from 24 neonatal intensive care units around Turkey (click here or A_Multicentered_Study_on_Epidemiologic_and.2). Those born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy were excluded. One with Down’s syndrome died. Citation: Kanburoglu, Mehmet Kenan; Tayman, Cuneyt; Oncel, Mehmet Yekta; Akin, Ilke Mungan; Can, Emrah; Demir, Nihat; Arayici, Sema; Baser, Demet Orhan; Caner, Ibrahim; Memisoglu, Asli; Uygun, Saime Sundus; Akar, Selahattin; Akin, Mustafa Ali; Ataoglu, Emel; Bezirganoglu, Handan; Bilgin, Leyla; Bozdag, Senol; Comert, Serdar; Gurpinar, Resat; Imamoglu, Ebru Yalin; Imdadoglu, Timucin; Narter, Fatma; Ozdemir, Ramazan; Toptan, Handan Hakyemez; Yalinbas, Emine Esin; Yaman, Akan; Erdeve, Omer; Koc, Esin. A Multicentered Study on Epidemiologic and Clinical Characteristics of 37 Neonates With Community-acquired COVID-19, The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: October 2020 – Volume 39 – Issue 10 – p e297-e302
doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002862 

Study 276 – a case treated with Remdesivir from New York Presbyterian

A woman with severe Covid-19 requiring supplemental oxygen but not invasive ventilation was treated with hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir (click here or ofaa345). She recovered and later gave birth vaginally. She was a health care worker caring for COVID-19 patients. From author affiliations this was NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical Center, so she may have been included in studies 99, 230, 234 and 270 and possibly other New York series.  Citation: Grace A Maldarelli, MD, PhD, Megan Savage, MD, Shawn Mazur, PharmD, Corrina Oxford-Horrey, MD, Mirella Salvatore, MD, Kristen M Marks, MD, Remdesivir treatment for severe COVID-19 in third-trimester pregnancy: Case report and management discussion, Open Forum Infectious Diseases, , ofaa345,

Study 275 – 20 women infected with SARS-CoV-2 and pre-eclampsia from Peru

20 women with SARS-CoV-2 also developed pre-eclampsia (click here or PIIS0301211520305959). Two babies died. One baby tested positive. One woman require hysterectomy for placenta accreata. Patients were cared for at Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins, Lima, Peru and, as acknowledged by the authors, they overlap with those reported in study 274. Citation: Coronado-Arroyo JC, Concepcion-Zavaleta MJ, Zavaleta-Gutierrez FE, Concepcion-Urteaga LA, Is COVID-19 a risk factor for severe preeclampsia? Hospital experience in a developing country, European Journal of Obstetrics and amp; Gynecology and Reproductive Biology (2020), doi: 

Study 274 – 41 patients from Peru

Of 41 women with Covid-19 in pregnancy, treated  between March 24 & May 7, 2020, none died although two required non invasive ventilation. Report in Spanish (click here). English translation (available here or 2245-6876-2-PB). From author affiliations the patients were cared for in Edgardo Rebagliati Martins National Hospital, Lima, Peru. One baby was infected. This is a different hospital from the case in study 51. Citation: Huerta Saenz IH, Elías Estrada JC, Campos Del Castillo K, Muñoz Taya R, Cristina Coronado J. Maternal and perinatal characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 in a national hospital in Lima, Peru. Rev Peru Ginecol Obstet. 2020;66(2). DOI: 

16 September update – studies 272 & 273 added.

Study 273 – 598 cases from US COVID-NET hospitals

598 hospitalized women with COVID-19, cared for in the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) were pregnant (click here or mm6938e1-H). 44 mothers were admitted to ICU, 23 required invasive mechanical ventilation, and two died. COVID-NET covers 99 counties in 14 US states, which amounts to about 10% of the US population. The cases likely overlap with those in previous COVID-NET reports, studies 171 and 173. Citation: Delahoy MJ, Whitaker M, O’Halloran A, et al. Characteristics and Maternal and Birth Outcomes of Hospitalized Pregnant Women with Laboratory-Confirmed COVID-19 — COVID-NET, 13 States, March 1–August 22, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. ePub: 16 September 2020. DOI:

Study 272 – 105 cases from eight US hospitals participating in vaccine surveillance

Among 105 pregnant women admitted with SARS-CoV-2 infection to eight hospitals participating in a Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) surveillance project, over half were admitted for obstetric reasons (click here or mm6938e2-H). The participating hospitals are listed here. Citation: Panagiotakopoulos L, Myers TR, Gee J, et al. SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Hospitalized Pregnant Women: Reasons for Admission and Pregnancy Characteristics — Eight U.S. Health Care Centers, March 1–May 30, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. ePub: 16 September 2020. DOI: icon

14 September update – study 270 added

Study 271 – 86 “extra” maternal deaths during pandemic in Mexico

These authors used publicly available goverment statisitics (click here) to estimate the excess maternal deaths from Covid-19 in Mexico in 2020 (click here or Excess_Maternal_Deaths_Associated_With_Coronavirus.97254). The predicted maternal mortality ratio was 29.5 per 100,000 live births, and so far in 2020 the actual ratio is 42.4. The excess was entirely confined to respiratory disease. Overall 86 “extra” deaths have ocurred. In comparison the 168 deaths officially reported as due to respiratory disease are made up of 109 deaths due to confirmed COVID-19, 34 for which COVID-19 needs to be confirmed, and 25 due to other respiratory diseases. Citation: Lumbreras-Marquez, Mario I. MBBS, MMSc; Campos-Zamora, Melissa MBBS, MMSc; Seifert, Sara M. MD; Kim, Jimin MD, MSc; Lumbreras-Marquez, Jesus MBBS; Vazquez-Alaniz, Fernando PhD; Fields, Kara G. MS; Farber, Michaela K. MD, MS Excess Maternal Deaths Associated With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Mexico, Obstetrics & Gynecology: September 09, 2020 – Volume Publish Ahead of Print – Issue – doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004140 

13 September update – studies 267-270 added

Study 270 – more from New York Presbyterian

Not clear from abstract if this includes original data (click here or ). Citation: Dayal, A. K., Razavi, A. S., Jaffer, A. K., Prasad, N., & Skupski, D. W. (2020). COVID-19 in obstetrics 2020: the experience at a New York City medical center, Journal of Perinatal Medicine (published online ahead of print 2020), 000010151520200365. doi:

Study 269 – Case report from Baltimore

A woman with Covid-19 ruptured her membranes at 19 weeks, and delivered vaginally at 29 weeks (click here or Haiti 8847859 (1)). The baby tested negative but suffered complications of prematurity and remains on ICU. From author affiliations the hospital was probably University of Maryland Medical Center, which has not previously repoted cases. Citation: Mary E. Burgoyne, Emad A. Elsamadicy, Liviu Cojocaru, Andrea Desai, “COVID-19 Barriers to Care for Pregnant Patients in Prolonged Isolation”, Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 2020, Article ID 8847859, 4 pages, 2020.

Study 268 – 14 cases from Tongi, Wuhan

Further details on 14 cases which have probably been described before (click here or 1-s2.0-S2052297520301049-main). Citation: Gao X, Wang S, Zeng W, Chen S, Wu J, Lin X, Liu Y, Sun Z, Feng L, Clinical and immunological features among COVID-19 affected mother-infant pairs: antibodies to SARS- CoV- 2 detected in breast milk, New Microbes and New Infections,

Study 267 – Case from Izmir, Turkey

Mild Covid-19 delivered by Caesarean, both well (click here or ozer pdf_TPD_1941). From Dokuz Eylul University Hospital, Izmir, which has not previously reported cases. Citation: Ozer E, Cagliyan E, Yuzuguldu RI, Cevizci MC, Duman N. Villitis of Unknown Etiology in the Placenta of a Pregnancy Complicated by COVID-19 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Sep 8]. Villitis of Unknown Etiology in the Placenta of a Pregnancy Complicated by COVID-19 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Sep 8]. Turk Patoloji Derg. 2020;10.5146/tjpath.2020.01506. doi:10.5146/tjpath.2020.01506

11 September update – study 266 added

Study 266b – United States, Centres for Disease Control update

The latest CDC tracking data, updated 10th September, shows 20,798 pregnant women with Covid-19 in the United States, of whom 44 (0.21%) have died (click here). Among those  for which data were available 205/5,339 (4.7%) were admitted to ICU, and 77/4,674 (1.6%) required mechanical ventialtion. Citation: Centres for Disease Control. Weekly COVID-19 Pregnancy Data updated September 10, 2020, Accessed 11 Sept 2020.

10th September update – studies 264 & 265 added

Study 265b – 71 cases from Houston, Texas

The authors report 71 women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at delivery, four who had tested positive earlier in the pregnancy and two postnatally (click here or PIIS0301211520305807). One mother with severe disease recovered. Another required ECMO and remains on ventilatory support at a tertiary centre three months following delivery at 30 weeks. All neonates were isolated, and one tested positive but was asymptomatic. No babies died. All authors were affiliated with McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas. Houston but the acknowledgment suggests that the unnamed community hospital was Memorial Hermann Southwest Hospital. There have been no previous reports from Houston. Citation: Pineles BL, Alamo IC, Farooq N, Green J, Blackwell SC, Sibai BM, Parchem JG, Racial-Ethnic Disparities and Pregnancy Outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a Universally-Tested Cohort in Houston, Texas, European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology & Reproductive Biology (2020), doi:

Study 264b – 246 cases from Spain

246 women with SARS-CoV-2 and 763 control women are reported in this Medxiv preprint (click here or 2020.09.05.20188458v1.full). Five women were admitted to ICU, but none died. Three babies were stillborn. This is the first report from the Spanish “Obs Covid registry” which includes 77 hospitals in Spain. The patients are therefore likely to include some from previous Spanish series, namely studies 53, 125, 151, 158, 165, 185, 191, 196, 235, and 266. Note that study 196, authored by the Neo-COVID-19 Research Group, which includes 14 hospitals in Spain, reported 42 cases and included one maternal death, so presumably does not completely overlap. Citation: SPANISH OBSTETRIC EMERGENCY GROUP, Oscar Martinez Perez, et al. The association between COVID-19 and preterm delivery: A cohort study with a multivariate analysis. medRxiv 2020.09.05.20188458; doi:

8 September update – studies 261-263 added

Study 263b – 66 cases (plus one maternal death) from Tehran, Iran

Of 66 women with Covid-19 treated between March 1 to Sep 1, 2020, four were admitted to ICU but none required ventilation (click here or taaa158). Two women aborted, 43 delivered, and 21 pregnancies are ongoing. No baby outcomes are reported directly, although one baby tested positive. No women in the series died. However in the discusssion section it is mentioned that in February 2020, a 22-year-old pregnant woman with COVID-19 at 37 weeks had died in the same hospital. It is not clear if she had been included in studies 23, 66 or 67. The women were cared for in Arash Women’s Hospital, which has also reported a set of triplets of which one was infected with SARS-CoV-2 and survived, and the other two who were negative died, (case 5 in study 250). Those triplets seem not to be included in the present series although it is not clear why. Citation: Pirjani R, Hosseini R, Soori T, et al. Maternal and neonatal outcomes in COVID-19 infected pregnancies: a prospective cohort study [published online ahead of print, 2020 Sep 5]. J Travel Med. 2020;taaa158. doi:10.1093/jtm/taaa158

Study 262b – case report from Wuhan

A woman with Covid-19 gave birth normally on Feb 22nd at 38 weeks gestation (click here or Antibodies in the breast milk of a maternal woman with COVID 19). Her baby was isolated and tested negative. IgG and IgA were both detected in breast milk, but no virus. The hospital of birth is unnamed but the mother was later transferred Guanggu Branch of Hubei Maternal and Child Health Hospital, a designated hospital for COVID-19 treatment in Wuhan city. This is not listed on but has reported cases many times. The case has probably been included in studies 8, 17, 30, 38, 54, and 55, and perhaps others. Citation: Yunzhu Dong, Xiangyang Chi, Huang Hai, Liangliang Sun, Mengyao Zhang, Wei-Fen Xie & Wei Chen (2020) Antibodies in the breast milk of a maternal woman with COVID-19, Emerging Microbes & Infections, 9:1, 1467-1469, DOI: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1780952 

Study 261b – Case report from Al Ahssa, Saudi Arabia

A woman with mild Covid-19 was delivered by Caesarean at 38 weeks and the baby isolated from the mother (click here or cureus-0012-00000010035). The baby did not become infected although 1/29 health care workers involved contracted SARS-CoV-2. This is the first reported case from Saudi Arabia. Citation: AlOmran A, Almatawah Y, Al Sharit B, Alsadah Z, Mousa O. Infection Prevention and Control Challenges With First Pregnant Woman Diagnosed With COVID-19: A Case Report in Al Ahssa, Saudi Arabia. Cureus. 2020;12(8):e10035. Published 2020 Aug 26. doi:10.7759/cureus.10035

7 September update – studies 258-260 added

Study 260b – Case report from Leicester, UK

A woman with Covid-19 at 28 weeks recovered and delivered at term (click here or e237007.full). The baby was unaffected. From author affiliations the hospital was part of University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, which runs two maternity hospitals, Leicester Royal Infirmary and Leicester General Hospital. Neither has previously reported cases, although the patient was probably included in the UKOSS report, Study 92. Citation: Anness ASiddiqui F. COVID-19 complicated by hepatic dysfunction in a 28-week pregnant woman. 

Study 259b – Case report from Malmo, Sweden

A woman with severe Covid-19 and coagulopathy at 32 weeks required Caesarean delivery (click here or 1-s2.0-S1876034120304391-main). Mother and baby recovered. The baby tested negative. The hospital was Skåne University Hospital in Malmö which has not previously reported cases. Citation: Ronnje, L., Länsberg, J., Vikhareva, O. et al. Complicated COVID-19 in pregnancy: a case report with severe liver and coagulation dysfunction promptly improved by delivery. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 20, 511 (2020).

Study 258b – Case of successful ECMO from France

A woman with Covid 19 required ventilation and Caesarean at 31 weeks. Following delivery her condition worsened and she was treated with ECMO for 7 days (click here or PIIS105307702030793X (002)). She recovered with moderate residual shortness of breath. The baby tested negtive and also recovered. From author affiliations the unnamed ECMO hospital was probably Hôpital Henri-Mondor in Creteil, a southeastern suburb of Paris. The patient may have been previously included in studies 150 & 184. Citation: Fiore A, Piscitelli M, Adodo DK, et al. Successful use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) in postpartum as rescue therapy in a woman with Covid-19: ECMO postpartum in COVID-19 patient [published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 6]. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2020;doi:10.1053/j.jvca.2020.07.088

3rd September update

Study 257b – Case report from Suzhou, China

A woman with Covid-19 was delivered by Caesarean on February 6, 2020 (click here or main (1)). The baby and other placental/amniotic samples tested negative. Both mother and baby survived. She was cared for in the 5th People’s Hospital of Suzhou grid.490559.4 (click here) which has not previously reported cases. Citation: Lv Y, Gu B, Chen Y, et al. No intrauterine vertical transmission in pregnancy with COVID-19: A case report [published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 5]. J Infect Chemother. 2020;S1341-321X(20)30266-X. doi:10.1016/j.jiac.2020.07.015

Study 266 – Two cases from Alcazar de San Juan, Spain

Two pregnant woman with Covid-19 at 12 and 20 weeks respectively had amniocenteis negative for SARS-CoV-2 (click here or 10.1080@14767058.2020.1811669). From author affiliations the unnamed hospital was probably Hospital La Mancha Centro, in Alcazar de San Juan, Spain which has not previously reported cases. Citation: Ana M. Rubio Lorente, Maria Pola Guillén, Nuria López Jimenez, Maria Moreno-Cid Garcia-Suelto, Eduardo Rodriguez Rodriguez & Ana Pascual Pedreño (2020) Study of amniotic fluid in pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 in first and second trimester. Is there evidence of vertical transmission?, The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, DOI: 10.1080/14767058.2020.1811669

2nd September update

Study 265 – Pregnant v non-pregnant disease severity using smartphone apps

The authors of this Medxiv preprint (click here or 2020.08.17.20161760v1.full) used a smartphone app (400K women – click here) and the Facebook/Carnegie Mellon COVID-19 survey (1.8M women – click here) to record Covid-19 symptoms and outcomes prospectively. Pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection had the same disease severity as the non-pregnant. Citation: Erika Molteni, Christina M Astley, Wenjie Ma, Carole Helene Sudre, Laura A Magee, Benjamin Murray, Tove Fall, Maria F Gomez, Neli Tsereteli, Paul W Franks, John S Brownstein, Richard Davies, Jonathan Wolf, Timothy Spector, Sebastien Ourselin, Claire Steves, Andrew T Chan, Marc Modat SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection in pregnant women: characterization of symptoms and syndromes predictive of disease and severity through real-time, remote participatory epidemiology. medRxiv 2020.08.17.20161760; doi:

1st September update – studies 257 to 264 added

Study 264 – SARS-CoV-2 cell entry gene expression in placenta

Placental expression of the SARS-CoV-2 cell entry genes, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in pre-pandemic stored samples from the Research Centre for Women’s and Infants’ Health BioBank, and the Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital, both in Toronto, Ontario (click here or Bloise AJOG 1-s2.0-S000293782030884X-main). Citation: Bloise E, Zhang J, Nakpu J, Hamada H, Dunk CE, Li S, Imperio GE, Nadeem L, Kibschull M, Lye P, Matthews SG, Lye SJ, Expression of SARS-CoV-2 cell entry genes, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, in the placenta across gestation and at the maternal-fetal interface in pregnancies complicated by preterm birth or preeclampsia, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2020), doi:

Study 263 – Case report from The Netherlands

A pregnant woman with Covid-19 developed coagulopathy at 31 weeks, and CTG abnormalities at 32 weeks, necessitating Caesarean birth (click here or Mongula uog.22189). From author affiliations the unnamed hospital was probably Máxima Medical Centre, in Einthoven. Apart from NethOSS reports, the case has not been previously reported. Citation: Mongula, J.E., Frenken, M.W.E., van Lijnschoten, G., Arents, N.L.A., de Wit‐Zuurendonk, L.D., Schimmel‐de Kok, A.P.A., van Runnard Heimel, P.J., Porath, M.M. and Goossens, S.M.T.A. (2020), COVID‐19 during pregnancy: non‐reassuring fetal heart rate, placental pathology and coagulopathy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/uog.22189

Study 262 – COVID-19 perinatal biorepository in Massachussetts

100 women and 78 newborns enrolled in the Massachussets General Hospital COVID-19 biorepository (click here or s12874-020-01102-y). No clinical outcomes reported. Citation: Shook, L.L., Shui, J.E., Boatin, A.A. et al. Rapid establishment of a COVID-19 perinatal biorepository: early lessons from the first 100 women enrolled. BMC Med Res Methodol 20, 215 (2020).

Study 261- Cardiac abnomalities with, but not caused by, SARS-CoV-2. New York

Six babies with congenital heart disease and one with congenital diaphragmatic hernia born to women with SARS-CoV-2, and cared for in the cardiac unit of New York Presbyterian’s Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital and Columbia University Irving Medical Center (click here or Goldshtrom 2150135120950256). No babies had symptoms and none tested positive. Four babies were inborn, & two transferred in. Some of the pregnancies and births have probably been described elsewhere. Citation: Goldshtrom, N., Vargas, D., Vasquez, A., Kim, F., Desai, K., Turner, M. E., … Krishnamurthy, G. (2020). Neonates With Complex Cardiac Malformation and Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Born to SARS-CoV-2 Positive Women—A Single Center Experience. World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery.

Study 260 – 2 patients from Vercelli in Italy

Two women with positive SARS-CoV-2 serology also had anti SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in their baby’s cord blood (click here or vendola EJOG PIIS0301211520305352). One birth was vaginal and one by Caesarean. From author affilitations the unnamed hospital was probably Ospedale Sant’Andrea in Vercelli in Piedmont, which has not previously reported caes. Both mothers and babies were healthy.  Citation: Vendola Nicoletta, Stampini Viviana, Amadori, Roberta, Gerbino Martina, Curatolo Annalisa, Surico Daniela, et al. Vertical transmission of antibodies in infants born from mothers with positive serology to COVID-19 pneumonia’ European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology & Reproductive Biology, Accepted article online.

Study 259 – Test uptake druing hospital birth in St Louis, Missouri

Of 270 women offered SARS-CoV-2 testing on admission in labour, 13 had symptomatic disease, 3 had tested positive earlier in the pregnancy, and 223 accepted testing. Uptake rose after a range of methods to encourage testing (click here or Kernberg Universal_SARS.97256). Time period May 28th to June 25th No clinical details or test results reported. Barnes Jewish Hospital in St. Louis, Missouri has not previously reported cases. However the case reported in study 69 may have been cared for in the same hospital. Citation: Kernberg A, Kelly J, Nazeer S, et al. Universal Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) Testing Uptake in the Labor and Delivery Unit: Implications for Health Equity [published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 26]. Obstet Gynecol. 2020;10.1097/AOG.0000000000004127

Study 258 – Environmental sampling during 4 births in Oregon

A range of samples were collected from the room during two vaginal and two Ceasarean births of asymptomatic women with SARS-CoV-2 (click here or Hermesch SARSCoronavirus_2.97258). No other clinical details. The unnamed university hospital is difficult to identify from author affiliations. Citation: Hermesch, Amy C. MD, PhD; Horve, Patrick F. BS; Edelman, Alison MD, MPH; Dietz, Leslie PhD; Constant, David PhD; Fretz, Mark DDS, MArch; Messer, William B. MD, PhD; Martindale, Robert MD; Van Den Wymelenberg, Kevin PhD Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Environmental Contamination and Childbirth, Obstetrics & Gynecology: August 19, 2020 – Volume Publish Ahead of Print – Issue – doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004112

Study 257 – 6 cases treated with nitric oxide from Massachusetts

Six pregnant women with severe Covid-19 were treated with nitric oxide (click here or FAKHR High_Concentrations_of_Nitric_Oxide_Inhalation.97257). Three women delivered four babies, and three pregnancies are ongoing. No mothers or babies died. The patients were treated at Massachusetts General Hospital from April to June 2020, and probably overlap with those reported in studies 142 & 231. Citation: Safaee Fakhr B, Wiegand SB, Pinciroli R, et al. High Concentrations of Nitric Oxide Inhalation Therapy in Pregnant Patients With Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) [published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 26]. Obstet Gynecol. 2020; 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004128. 

21st August update – studies 255 & 256 added

Study 256 – Case report from Norway

In Norweigan. Following from Google translate. A woman with twins developed mild Covid-19 during the process of labour induction at 38 weeks (click here or 59551-fødende-risikopasient-med-covid-19). Both babies were delivered vaginally. She recovered and the twins were healthy. Baby test results not reported. 14 hospital employees were quarantined due to patient contact, but none diagnosed with infection. From author affiliations the unnamed hospital was Sørlandet Hospital, Kristiansand, which has not previously reported cases.  Citation: Ane Cecilie Munk, Linda Reme Sagedal, Turid Stavseth Krogedal, Ida McFadzean, Hanna Oommen. Fødende risikopasient med covid-19 (Maternity risk patient with covid-19) Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening. Published: July 16, 2020 Issue 11, August 18, 2020 Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2020 doi: 10.4045 / tidsskr.20.0425

Study 255 – 16 maternal deaths in the UK

Ten women died with SARS-CoV-2 between 01/03/2020 and 31/05/2020, seven directly due to Covid-19, one cause not determined, and two due to unrelated causes (click here or Ref.-201-MBRRACE-UK-maternal-COVID-19-Report-FINAL (002)).  Six further women died by suicide or domestic violence, conceivably related to lockdown, over the same period. They overlap with those in studies 29, 52, 68, 92, 107, 126 & 200. Citation: Knight M, Bunch K, Cairns A, Cantwell R, Cox P, Kenyon S, Kotnis R, Lucas DN, Lucas S, Marshall L, Nelson-Piercy C, Page L, Rodger A, Shakespeare J, Tuffnell D, Kurinczuk JJ on behalf of MBRRACE-UK. Saving Lives, Improving Mothers’ Care Rapid Report: Learning from SARS-CoV-2-related and associated maternal deaths in the UK March – May 2020 Oxford: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford 2020.

20 August update – study 254 added

Study 254 – Breast milk testing in 18 affected women from the United States

Eighteen women with SARS-CoV-2, 17 symptomatic, had multiple breast milk samples tested (click here or jama_chambers_2020_ld_200087_1597789061.40481). One sample had detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA, but no replication-competent virus was detectable in any sample, including the sample that tested positive for viral RNA. The samples were collected from woman anywhere in the United States so may include cases previously reported. Citation: Chambers C, Krogstad P, Bertrand K, et al. Evaluation for SARS-CoV-2 in Breast Milk From 18 Infected Women. JAMA. Published online August 19, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.15580

19 August update – Studies 251 to 253 added.

Study 253 – Case report from Chongqing, China

A woman with Covid-19 was delivered at 35 weeks gestation by caesarean section (click here or 1-s2.0-S1876034120304391-main). The baby was not infected. From author affiliations the unnamed hospital was probably Chongqing Three Gorges Central Hospital (grid.477128.f) which has not previously reported cases. Citation: Zhoujie Peng, Jianhui Wang, Yunbo Mo, Wei Duan, Guangjun Xiang, Ming Yi, Lei Bao, Yuan Shi. Unlikely SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission from mother to child: A case report. Journal of Infection and Public Health, Volume 13, Issue 5, 2020, Pages 818-820, ISSN 1876-0341,

Study 252a – Case report from Genoa, Italy

An asymptomatic woman with SARS-CoV-2 underwent Caesarean for breech at 38 weeks gestation (click here or medicina-56-00306-v2). The baby was asymptomatic and tested negative. Swabs from the amniotic surface of the placenta were positive. The hospital was IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, which has not previously reported cases. Citation: Ferraiolo, A.; Barra, F.; Kratochwila, C.; Paudice, M.; Vellone, V.G.; Godano, E.; Varesano, S.; Noberasco, G.; Ferrero, S.; Arioni, C. Report of Positive Placental Swabs for SARS-CoV-2 in an Asymptomatic Pregnant Woman with COVID-19. Medicina 2020, 56, 306.

Study 252 – 49 new cases from Lombardy, Italy

These 49 women with SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy were collected between 10–26 April (click here or 10.1080@14767058.2020.1788532).  No outcomes reported. The unnamed hospitals in Milan and the six provinces of Lombardy (Brescia, Como, Lecco, Monza, Pavia, and Sondrio) were probably Sacco (Milan), Mangiagalli (Milan), S. Gerardo MBBM Foundation (Monza), Papa Giovanni XXIII (Bergamo), and San Matteo (Pavia) and the hospitals of Padua, Florence, Lecco, Trento, Modena, Seriate and Piacenza. However the recruitment period was later than that in studies 33, 64 & 117, so these patients have not been previously reported. Citation: Enrico Ferrazzi, Paolo Beretta, Stefano Bianchi, Irene Cetin, Paolo Guarnerio, Anna Locatelli, Anna Maria Marconi, Mario Giuseppe Meroni, Giulia Pavone, Armando Pintucci, Federico Prefumo, Valeria Savasi, Arsenio Spinillo, Beatrice Tassis, Patrizia Vergani, Michele Vignali, Fabio Parazzini & Carlo La Vecchia. (2020): SARS-CoV-2 infection testing at delivery: a clinical and epidemiological priority. Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, DOI: 10.1080/14767058.2020.1788532

Study 251 – 101 cases from Chicago

Risk factors for 101 pregnant women testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 were compared with 1,317 controls (click here or 1-s2.0-S2589933320301543-main). No outcome data. The women were cared for at Northwestern Memorial Hospital March 19 to May 31 2020. They likely include cases in studies 116 & 124Citation: SAKOWICZ A, AYALA AE, UKEJE CC, WITTING CS, GROBMAN WA, MILLER ES, Risk Factors for SARS-CoV2 Infection in Pregnant Women, American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM (2020), doi:

18 August update – belated addition of study 246, ItOSS registry, (HT Aris Papageorghiou), & studies 247 to 250.

Study 250 – 19 infected babies from Iran

19 newborns (incl. one set of triplets) infected with SARS-CoV-2 (click here or 10.1080@14767058.2020.1797672). One mother and four babies died. Dates of birth preceded paper receptin 20 June. The hospitals were Imam Khomeini Hospital, Orumiyeh, West Azerbaijan Province; Shariati Hospital, Tehran (the mother of this case died); Torbat-e Jām Hospital in Torbat-e Jām, Razavi Khorasan Province; Taleghani Hospital in Tehran, Arash Women’s Hospital in Tehran (triplets – 2 died, 1 survived); Boo-Ali Sina Hospital in Sari, Mazandaran Province; Qods Hospital in Qazvin; Ayatollah Mousavi Hospital in Zanjan; Mustafa Khomeini Hospital in Ilam; Allameh Bohluli Hospital in Gonabad, Razavi Khorasan Province; Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Khorasan-e Razavi Province; Imam Sajad Hospital in Shahriar, Tehran Province; Day General Hospital in Tehran; Taleghani Hospital in Gorgan, Golestan Province (baby died); Hakim Jorjani Hospital in Gorgan, Golestan Province (baby died); and Hamedan Besat Hospital in Hamedan. The cases may overlap with those in studies 66, 67 & 218. They probably differ from those reported in studies 23 & 70. Citation: David A. Schwartz, Parisa Mohagheghi, Babak Beigi, Nazanin Zafaranloo, Fereshteh Moshfegh, Anita Yazdani. Spectrum of neonatal COVID-19 in Iran: 19 infants with SARS-CoV-2 perinatal infections with varying test results, clinical findings and outcomes. J Mat Fetal & Neonatal Med 2020, AHEAD-OF-PRINT, 1-10

Study 249 – 669 cases with respiratory problems from Brazil

Another report of women with Covid-19 in pregnancy identified through the Brazilian Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Surveillance System (click here or oup-accepted-manuscript-2020). Overlap with studies 66, 138, 282, 194, 201, 203 & 248. Citation: Debora de Souza Santos, RN, PhD, Mariane de Oliveira Menezes, CM, MSc, Carla Betina Andreucci, MD, PhD, Marcos Nakamura-Pereira, MD, PhD, Roxana Knobel, MD, PhD, Leila Katz, MD, PhD, Heloisa de Oliveira Salgado, MSc, PhD, Melania Maria Ramos de Amorim, MD, PhD, Maira L S Takemoto, CNM, PhD, Disproportionate impact of COVID-19 among pregnant and postpartum Black Women in Brazil through structural racism lens, Clinical Infectious Diseases, , ciaa1066,

Study 248 – 978 cases with respiratory problems from Brazil

Of 978 pregnant or postpartum women with COVID-19 and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), 124 died (click here or 1471-0528.16470). These appear to be the same cases as reported in study 182, albeit in more detail. They probably also overlap with studies 66, 138, 194, 201, & 203. Citation: Takemoto, M.L., Menezes, M.O., Andreucci, C.B., Knobel, R., Sousa, L.A., Katz, L., Fonseca, E.B., Nakamura‐Pereira, M., Magalhães, C.G., Diniz, C.S., Melo, A.S., Amorim, M.M. and Menezes, M.O. (2020), Clinical characteristics and risk factors for mortality in obstetric patients with severe COVID‐19 in Brazil: a surveillance database analysis. BJOG: Int J Obstet Gy. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.16470

Study 247 – 6 placentas from 5 women, Turin, Italy

This preprint reports the histology of 6 placentas from 5 pregnancies (one set of twins) complicated by Covid-19 (click here or Placenta in SARS-CoV-2 Bertero). All mothers and babies survived and all babies tested negative. They were cared for in S. Anna Hospital, Turin from March 22, to April 23, 2020, so are probably included in study 246. Citation: Luca Bertero, Fulvio Borella, Giovanni Botta, Andrea Carosso, Stefano Cosma, Marialuisa Bovetti, Marco Carosso, Giancarlo Abbona, Mauro Papotti, Paola Cassoni. Placenta in SARS-CoV-2 infection: a new target for inflammatory and thrombotic events. Research Square. Maternal Fetal Medicine. 2020. DOI: 10.21203/

Study 246 – 146 cases from Italy (ItOSS)

This Medxiv preprint (not yet published as a peer reviewed paper) reports 146 women with Covid-19 in pregnancy up to April 22nd and collected by the Italian Obstetric Surveillance System, ItOSS (click here or 2020.06.11.20128652v1.full). 142 were positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 4 diagnosed clinically via CXR. Seven mothers were admitted to ITU, and 2 intubated, but none died. Two babies were stillborn and five tested positive. There were no neonatal deaths. These patients likely overlap with those in studies 32, 64, 76, 79, 109, 114, 188 and 197. They probably do not overlap with those in study 195. Citation: Alice Maraschini, Edoardo Corsi, Michele Antonio Salvatore, Serena Donati. Coronavirus and birth in Italy: results of a national population-based cohort study. medRxiv 2020.06.11.20128652; doi:

17th August update – studies 238 to 245 added

Study 245 – 141 cases from Mumbai, India

Out of 141 women with Covid-19 in pregnancy there were 3 abortions, one ectopic pregnancy and 3 maternal deaths (click here or Nayak 13224_2020_Article_1335). There were 3 stillbirths and 3 babies tested positive. From the description and author affiliations, the unnamed hospital is almost certainly Lokmanya Tilak Municipal General Hospital, grid.415652.1, which has not previously reported cases. Citation: Nayak, A.H., Kapote, D.S., Fonseca, M. et al. Impact of the Coronavirus Infection in Pregnancy: A Preliminary Study of 141 Patients. J Obstet Gynecol India 70, 256–261 (2020).

Study 244 – 125 cases from Turkey

Of 125 pregnant women with Covid-19 (click here or Oncel2020_Article), 7 mothers required ventilation and 5 died. Four babies tested positive and one (who tested negative) died. The babies were cared for in 34 unnamed neonatal intensive care units. From author affiliations these probably include İzmir (3 centres), İstanbul (6 centres), Rize (1 centre), Ankara (4 centres) and Kocaeli (1 centre). Some of these cases probably overlap with those reported in studies 31, 145, 146, 203, 210 & 223. Citation: Oncel, M.Y., Akın, I.M., Kanburoglu, M.K. et al. A multicenter study on epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 125 newborns born to women infected with COVID-19 by Turkish Neonatal Society. Eur J Pediatr (2020).

Studies 238 to 243 – 6 case reports, from Portugal, France, US, India, UK & Nigeria

S 238 (facial palsy) from Porto, Portugal (click here or figuerdo), Citation: Figueiredo R, Falcão V, Pinto MJ, et al. BMJ Case Rep 2020;13:e237146. doi:10.1136/bcr-2020-237146S 239 (severe case) from Paris, France (click here or federici). Citation: Federici L, Picone O, Dreyfuss D, et al. BMJ Case Rep 2020;13:e237511. doi:10.1136/bcr-2020-237511S 240 (serial cord antibody levels) from Mount Sinai, New York (click here or Toner). Citation: Toner et al. Passive Immunity in COVID Positive Pregnant Patient. Am J Perinatol. 21 July 2020.  S 241 (mild case) from New Delhi, India (click here or Chhabra IndianJAnaesth6414141-6060246_165002). Citation: Chhabra A, Rao TN, Kumar M, Singh Y, Subramaniam R. Anaesthetic management of a COVID‑19 parturient for caesarean section ‑ Case report and lessons learnt. Indian J Anaesth 2020;64:S141-3. S 242 (HELLP) from Birmingham, UK (click here or Ahmed e237521.full) Citation: Ahmed I, Eltaweel N, Antoun L, et al. BMJ Case Rep 2020;13:e237521. doi:10.1136/bcr-2020-237521.  S 243 (Caesarean) from Lagos, Nigeria (click here or Makwe). Citation: Christian Chigozie Makwe et al. Caesarean delivery of first prediagnosed COVID-19 pregnancy in Nigeria. Pan African Medical Journal. 2020;36:100. [doi: 10.11604/pamj.2020.36.100.23892]

13 August update – studies 236 & 237 added

Study 237 – Effect of lockdown on hospital births in Nepal

Birth numbers halved, stillbirths increased by 50% and neonatal mortality nearly fourfold, during lockdown in nine Nepal hospitals (click here PIIS2214109X20303454). No women or babies were tested for Covid-19. Citation: Ashish KC, Rejina Gurung, Mary V Kinney, Avinash K Sunny, Md Moinuddin, Omkar Basnet, Prajwal Paudel, Pratiksha Bhattarai, Kalpana Subedi, Mahendra Prasad Shrestha, Joy E Lawn, Mats Målqvist. Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic response on intrapartum care, stillbirth, and neonatal mortality outcomes in Nepal: a prospective observational study. Lancet Global Health. August 10, 2020 DOI:

Study 236 – 45 cases from New York

45 babies were born to SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers, 30 were vaginal births, 33 co-located with their mothers and 31 were breast fed (click here or s41372-020-0765-30). 27 of the mothers were asymptomatic. No other maternal details were reported. All 45 new borns were tested & 3 were positive. The patients were cared for at Elmhurst Hospital Center in New York which has not previously reported cases.  Citation: Patil, U.P., Maru, S., Krishnan, P. et al. Newborns of COVID-19 mothers: short-term outcomes of colocating and breastfeeding from the pandemic’s epicenter. J Perinatol (2020).

11 August update – study 235 added

Study 235 – 125 anti-SARS-CoV-2 sero-positive women from Barcelona, Spain

Of 874 pregnant women attending first trimester screening (n=372) or delivery (n=502) from April 14 to May 5, 2020, 125 were positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, IgM, or IgA. 54/372 in first trimester, and 71/502 in 3rd trimester (click here or PIIS0140673620317141 & supplementary material mmc1). Three women required oxygen therapy, but none critical care. No baby outcomes reported. Women were cared for in Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Hospital Clínic, and Sant Pau all in Barcelona. They probably overlap with cases reported in studies 185 and 191, but probably not with those in studies 53, 125, 151, 158, 165, or 196. Citation: Francesca Crovetto, Fàtima Crispi, Elisa Llurba, Francesc Figueras, María Dolores Gómez-Roig, Eduard Gratacós. Seroprevalence and presentation of SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy.  Lancet. Published Online August 6, 2020

10 August update – study 234 added

Study 234 – 70 cases from New York

Of 675 pregnant women admitted for delivery and tested for SARS-CoV-2, 70 were positive, of whom 55 were asymptomatic on presentation (click here or 1471-0528.16403). Three mothers were hypoxic, one was admitted to ITU but none required ventilation. No mothers died. There was one stillbirth to a mother with asymptomatic Covid-19 and other pathology. 73 babies were born, 71 were tested and all were negative. The three hospitals, all affiliated with New York Presbyterian were Weill Cornell Medical Center, Queens, and Lower Manhattan Hospital. The cases may therefore also have been included in studies 160, 216 and 230. However, they were probably not included in the other NY Presbyterian series namely studies 14, 27, 41, 95, 96 and 136. Citation: Prabhu, M., Cagino, K., Matthews, K.C., Friedlander, R.L., Glynn, S.M., Kubiak, J.M., Yang, Y.J., Zhao, Z., Baergen, R.N., DiPace, J.I., Razavi, A.S., Skupski, D.W., Snyder, J.R., Singh, H.K., Kalish, R.B., Oxford, C.M. and Riley, L.E. (2020), Pregnancy and postpartum outcomes in a universally tested population for SARS‐CoV‐2 in New York City: A prospective cohort study. BJOG: Int J Obstet Gy. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.16403

9 August update – studies 230 to 233 added

Study 233 – case report from Marrakech, Morocco

A woman contracted Covid-19 at 31 weeks gestation, required oxygen therapy and went into premature labour. A Caesarean was performed for fetal distress (click here or 8852816). The mother recovered. The baby tested negative but had severe birth asphyxia and died age 5 days. The mother was cared for at University Hospital of Mohammed VI, Marrakech, which has not previously reported cases. This is the first report from Morocco. Citation: Yassamine Abourida, Houssam Rebahi, Imane Oussayeh, Hajar Chichou, Bouchra Fakhir, Abderraouf Soummani, Hicham Jalal, Fatiha Bennaoui, Nadia El Idrissi Slitine, Fadl Mrabih Rabou Maoulainine, Ahmed Rhassane El Adib, and Mohamed Abdenacer Samkaoui. Management of Severe COVID-19 in Pregnancy. Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology Volume 2020, Article ID 8852816, 5 pages

Study 232 – 44 cases from Boston, Massachusetts

Of 44 pregnant or recently postpartum women with COVID-19, 5 had severe disease and 2 required ventilation (click here or ijgo.13333). All mothers survived. Of 11 babies born, 9 tested negative and 2 declined testing. All survived. 31 pregnancies are ongoing. The majority of patients belonged to racial [sic] or ethnic minority groups. From author affiliations the unnamed hospital was probably Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston. Some cases may therefore have been reported in study 231, but probably differ from those in studies 129 & 142. Citation: Onwuzurike, C., Diouf, K., Meadows, A.R. and Nour, N.M. (2020), Racial and ethnic disparities in severity of COVID‐19 disease in pregnancy in the United States. Int J Gynecol Obstet. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/ijgo.13333

Study 231 – 19 placentas from Boston, Massachusetts

2/19 placentas of affected pregnancies tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by in-situ hybrization (click here or s41379-020-0639-4). There were no specific pathologic features compared with 262 control placentas. One fetus was stillborn at 22 weeks and not tested. There were two sets of twins. All liveborn babies survived, and only one tested positive. From the case codes in Table 2 it appears that 10 pregnancies had been cared for at Massachusetts General Hospital, 4 at Brigham and Women’s Hospital & 5 at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Some have therefore probably been reported in studies 129 & 142Citation: Hecht, J.L., Quade, B., Deshpande, V. et al. SARS-CoV-2 can infect the placenta and is not associated with specific placental histopathology: a series of 19 placentas from COVID-19-positive mothers. Mod Pathol (2020).

Study 230 – Placental features of 74 cases from New York

2/53 placentas from affected pregnancies contained a SARS-CoV-2 viral signal by in-situ hybridization (click here or Zhang, Placenta, AJOGMFM). One baby tested positive, the other negative. Both were asymptomatic. There were no specific histological differences between 74 placentas from SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnancies and 290 controls. The authors are affiliated with the New York Presbyterian, Brooklyn Methodist, Weill Cornell group of hospitals so the clinical aspects of the cases have probably been reported before.  Citation: Zhang P, Heyman T, Salafia C, Dygulska B, Lederman S, Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in placentas with pathology and vertical transmission, American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM (2020), doi:

8 August update – studies 225 to 229 added

Study 229 – Some assisted reproduction pregnancies during the pandemic in France.

The authors report 88, or possibly 104, women (numbers are unclear) who conceived by assisted reproduction between December 2019 & March 2020, and were still pregnant after the first reported case of Covid-19 in France on 12th February. Ten had symptoms related to Covid-19, none severe or requiring intensive care (click here or PIIS0301211520304929). Five of the ten were tested and two were positive. 15 women miscarried although their Covid-19 status was not reported. From author affiliations the unnamed centre was probably the Reproductive Biology UnitAntoine Béclère Hospital, Clamart, France. These cases may therefore feature in studies 150, 157, 184 & 217. The pregnancies were unlikely to have been sufficiently far advanced to have featured in studies 48 & 187. Citation: Mayeur A, Binois O, Gallot V, Hesters L, Benoit A, Oppenheimer A, Presse M, Zeghari F, Benguigi J, Grynberg M, Frydman N, Sonigo C, First follow-up of art pregnancies in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak, European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology (2020), doi:

Study 228 – case report from Stockton, California

A pregnant woman contracted severe Covid-19 requiring ventilation at 32 weeks (click here or Ching Case Rep RespMed). She was delivered by Caesarean section for suspected placenta praevia and recovered. The baby required intubation and ventilation for 48 hours but tested negative. The ultimate baby outcome is not reported. The hospital is unnamed but the authors’ affiliation with San Joaquin Critical Care Medical Group, suggests that it was San Joaquin General Hospital in Stockton, California which has not previously reported cases. Citation: Josebelo Chong, Siraj Ahmed, Kyle Hill. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in a pregnant patient with COVID-19 improved after delivery: A case report and brief review. Respiratory Medicine Case Reports. Volume 31, 2020, 101171, ISSN 2213-0071,

Study 227 – case report from Columbia, Missouri, USA

A woman with mild Covid-19 gave birth to a male infant vaginally at term (click here or HSU jmv.26386). She recovered. The baby breast fed, tested negative and was fine. The virus was demonstrated in the placenta by immuno-histochemistry using a  SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid-specific monoclonal antibody. Mother and baby were cared for at University of Missouri Women and Children’s Hospital which has not previously reported cases. The clinical details of case 69 differ. Citation: Hsu, A.L., Guan, M., Johannesen, E., Stephens, A.J., Khaleel, N., Kagan, N., Tuhlei, B.C. and Wan, X.‐F. (2020), Placental SARS‐CoV‐2 in a Pregnant Woman with Mild COVID‐19 Disease. J Med Virol. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/jmv.26386

Study 226 – 3 cases treated with remdesivir from Stanford

Three pregnant women with Covid-19 were treated with remdesivir outside a clinical trial (click here or PIIS0002937820308292). One developed “transaminitis” – I think the authors mean raised liver transaminase. The pre-print is missing a table – which the authors attributed to the remdesivir. That woman later developed intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and delivered normally. The other pregnancies are ongoing. The acknowledgements suggest that the unnamed hospital is Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital at Stanford. Although one author is shared with study 115 from another unnamed Stanford hospital, the clinical details differ. These cases have probably not previously been reported. Citation: Igbinosa I, Miller S, Bianco K, Nelson J, Kappagoda S, Blackburn BG, Grant P, Subramanian A, Lyell D, El-Sayed Y, Aziz N, Use of Remdesivir for Pregnant Patients with Severe Novel 2019 Coronavirus Disease, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2020), doi:

Study 225 – over 600 cases (412 births) in Nair Hospital, Mumbai

Nair hospital, Mumbai, India, a dedicated Covid-19 facility, has cared for over 600 pregnant women with the disease (click here or ijgo.13338). There have been 412 births including seven pairs of twins and one set of triplets. No mothers died of Covid-19 directly, although four died of other causes. No baby outcomes reported. The first two cases had originally been cared for elsewhere, and also previously denied admission at four private hospitals, the latter a feature of news reports from India (click here). Two health care workers contracted COVID-19. Nair Hospital has not previously reported cases. The case reported in study 58 was from New Delhi. Citation: Mahajan, N.N., Pednekar, R., Patil, S.R., Subramanyam, A.A., Rathi, S., Malik, S., Mohite, S.C., Shinde, G., Joshi, M., Kumbhar, P., Tilve, A., Lokhande, P.D. and Srivastava, S.A. (2020), Preparedness, administrative challenges for establishing obstetric services, and experience of delivering over 400 women at a tertiary care COVID‐19 hospital in India. Int J Gynecol Obstet. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/ijgo.13338

31 July update – studies 221 to 224 added

Study 224 – 6 cases from Sri lanka

This paper primarily reports the mental health of pregnant women without Covid-19 during the pandemic in Sri Lanka (click here or ijgo.13335). The authors mention six cases of COVID-19 positive pregnant women in the country. Although no further details are given, and the link given (ref 8) to the Live Situational Analysis Dashboard of Sri Lanka (click here) does not cite pregnancy cases, this is the first scientific report of Covid-19 in pregnancy from Sri Lanka. Citation: Patabendige, M., Gamage, M.M., Weerasinghe, M. and Jayawardane, A. (2020), Psychological impact of the COVID‐19 pandemic among pregnant women in Sri Lanka. Int J Gynecol Obstet. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/ijgo.13335

Study 223 – 3 cases from Ankara

Three pregnant women tested postive for SARS-CoV-2 in Ankara City Hospital (click here or PIIS0301211520304930). All three had co-morbidities but mild disease and were delivered by Caesarean. Baby outcomes not reported. Citation: Tanacan A, Erol SA, Turgay B, Anuk AT, Secen EI, Yegin GF, Ozyer S, Kirca F, Dinc B, Unlu S, Yapar Eyi EG, Keskin HL, Sahin D, Surel AA, Tekin OM, The Rate of SARS-CoV-2 Positivity in Asymptomatic Pregnant Women Admitted to Hospital for Delivery: Experience of A Pandemic Center in Turkey, European Journal of Obstetrics and amp; Gynecology and Reproductive Biology (2020), doi:

Study 222 – Case report from California

A 22-year-old woman with placenta previa and a past medical history of tuberous sclerosis and multiple associated comorbidities contracted Covid-19 at 23 weeks + 6 days gestation (click here or 2324709620946621). She required intubation and ventilation and was delivered by caesarean at 25+5. The baby tested negative. Both mother and baby survived. The hospital is unnamed but from author affiliations is probably Los Angeles County+USC Medical Center, which has not previously reported cases. Citation: Easterlin, M. C., De Beritto, T., Yeh, A. M., Wertheimer, F. B., & Ramanathan, R. (2020). Extremely Preterm Infant Born to a Mother With Severe COVID-19 Pneumonia. Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports.

Study 221 – SARS-CoV-2 serological testing of 1,293 parturient women

1,293 parturient women tested fro SARS-CoV-2 antbodies in two hospitals in Philadelphia, 80 were positive (click here or eabd5709.full), Percentages in results table 1 are given by row rather than column making comparisons difficult. The hospitals are unnamed. A preprint of this paper in MedXiv was study 202. Citation: D. D. Flannery et al., Sci. Immunol. 10.1126/sciimmunol.abd5709 (2020)

30 July update – study 220 added

Study 220 – 29 cases from Wuhan

29 women with Covid-19 between January 30 and March 10, 2020, gave birth to 30 neonates (1 set of twins) (click here or journal.pmed.1003195). The hospitals were Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University, and Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. These cases have surely been published before. Citation: Wu Y-T, Liu J, Xu J-J, Chen Y-F, Yang W, Chen Y, et al. (2020) Neonatal outcome in 29 pregnant women with COVID-19: A retrospective study in Wuhan, China. PLoS Med 17(7): e1003195.

28 July update – studies 217 to 219 added

Study 219 – 3 cases from New Jersey, USA

Three women with Covid-19 in pregnancy required ventilation and delivery by Caesarean (click here or Douedi AM J Cas Rep NJ). All three mothers and babies survived, and all babies tested negative. The hospital is unnamed, but from author affiliations is probably Jersey Shore University Medical Center. The cases were probably therefore also reported in study 149. Citation: Steven Douedi, Asseel Albayati, Nasam Alfraji, Usman Mazahir, Eric Costanzo Steven Douedi, Asseel Albayati, Nasam Alfraji, Usman Mazahir, Eric Costanzo. Am J Case Rep 2020; 21:e925513 DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.925513

Study 218 – Case report from Tehran, Iran

A 30 year old woman contracted Covid-19 at 21 weeks gestion (click here or Soleimani JMFM). She received methyprednisolone, Lopinivir, Azithromycin, Hydrocortisone and immune plasma and survived. The pregnancy is ongoing. The hospital is unnamed and only identifiable as being in Tehran from author affiliations. The case in study 101 was from a different city, and the details differ from those of the two survivors is study 67. Citation: Zahra Soleimani & Azam Soleimani (2020): ADRS due to COVID-19 in midterm pregnancy: successful management with plasma transfusion and corticosteroids, The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, DOI: 10.1080/14767058.2020.1797669

Study 217 – 83 cases from France & Belgium

83 pregnant women with Covid-19 were compared with a group of non-pregnant affected control women (click here or Badr AJOG PIIS0002937820307766). No raw data and no pregnancy outcomes provided. The hospitals were Antoine Béclère, Clamart, Paris, Bicêtre Hospital, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, Centre Hospitalier Sud Francilien, Corbeil-Essones, and University Hospital Brugmann, Brussels. These cases have probably been already reported. Citation: Badr DA, Mattern J, Carlin A, Cordier A-G, Maillart E, El Hachem L, El Kenz H, Andronikof M, De Bels D, Damoisel C, Preseau T, Vignes D, Cannie MM, Vauloup-Fellous C, Fils J-F, Benachi A, Jani JC, Vivanti AJ, Are clinical outcomes worse for pregnant women ≥ 20 weeks’ gestation infected with COVID-19? A multicenter case-control study with propensity score matching, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2020), doi:

27 July update – study 216 added

Study 216 – 120 babies born to SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers from New York

120 neonates born to 116 mothers who had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy, were were tested at 24 hours of life. Of them, 79 were also tested at 5-7 days, and 72 at 14 days. All tested negative at all time points and none had symptoms of COVID-19 (click here or  1-s2.0-S2352464220302352-main). The mothers and babies were cared for at three unnamed New York Presbyterian Hospitals. From author affiations these were probably Weill Cornell Presbyterian Komansky, Presbyterian Queens, and Presbyterian Lower Manhattan hospitals. These hospital names are not found among previous reports from New York despite many previous reports from the New York Presbyterian network. Citation: Christine M Salvatore, Jin-Young Han, Karen P Acker, Priyanka Tiwari, Jenny Jin, Michael Brandler, Carla Cangemi, Laurie Gordon, Aimee Parow, Jennifer DiPace, Patricia DeLaMora. Neonatal management and outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic: an observation cohort study, The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 2020, ISSN 2352-4642,

25 July update – studies 212 to 215 added

Study 215 – Case report from Tacoma, Washington State, USA

A woman with Covid-19 in pregnancy continued to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 for 100 days (click here or Prolonged_Detection_of_Severe_Acute_Respiratory.97292). Mother and baby survived. All viral tests on baby, placenta and breast milk were negative. The cord blood was positive for IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. From author affiliations the hospital was MultiCare Tacoma General Hospital, which has not previously reported cases. Citation: Molina, Loren P. MD; Chow, Siu-Kei PhD; Nickel, Adam DO; Love, Jason E. MD Prolonged Detection of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in an Obstetric Patient With Antibody Seroconversion, Obstetrics & Gynecology: July 21, 2020 – Volume Publish Ahead of Print – Issue – doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004086

Study 214 – 100 cases from New York

The authors report the Race [sic] and Ethnicity of 100 cases of Covid-19 in pregnancy from New York (click here or Influence_of_Race_and_Ethnicity_on_Severe_Acute.97290). These cases have likely been reported before. Citation: Emeruwa, Ukachi N. MD, MPH; Spiegelman, Jessica MD; Ona, Samsiya MD; Kahe, Ka MD, ScD; Miller, Russell S. MD; Fuchs, Karin M. MD, MHA; Aubey, Janice J. MD, MPH; Booker, Whitney MD; D’Alton, Mary E. MD; Friedman, Alexander M. MD, MPH; Aziz, Aleha MD, MPH; Sutton, Desmond MD; Purisch, Stephanie E. MD; Goffman, Dena MD; Melamed, Alexander MD, MPH; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia MD, MSc Influence of Race and Ethnicity on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection Rates and Clinical Outcomes in Pregnancy, Obstetrics & Gynecology: July 21, 2020 – Volume Publish Ahead of Print – Issue – doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004088

Study 213 – 89 cases from Sao Paolo, Brazil

Of 89 women with Covid-19 cared for in a single institution between March 12 & May 25, 2020, the details of five who experienced a fetal death are reported (click here or 1-s2.0-S2214911220300734-main). No details of the other cases, and no explicit maternal outcomes are reported, but enough details are given for it to be implied that the mothers survived. From author affiliations the unnamed hospital is probably Hospital e Maternidade Santa Joana, São Paulo. Apart from study 194 which was from a different city, all previous reports of Covid-19 in pregnancy from Brazil (studies 66, 138, 182 & 201) have been of maternal deaths. These cases have therefore probably not previously been reported. Citation: Rosana Richtmann, Maria Regina Torloni, Andre Ricardo Oyamada Otani, Jose Eduardo Levi, Mariana Crema Tobara, Camila de Almeida Silva, Lívio Dias, Lisia Miglioli-Galvão, Pollyanna Martins Silva, Mario Macoto Kondo, Fetal deaths in pregnancies with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Brazil: A case series, Case Reports in Women’s Health,  Volume 27, 2020, e00243, ISSN 2214-9112,

Study 212 – 2 cases from Yichang city, in Hubei province, China

There were only two pregnant women with Covid-19 in Yichang city between January 20 & April 9, 2020 (click here or Coronavirus_disease_2019__COVID_19__in_pregnancy_.126). Both mothers and both babies survived. Neither baby was infected. The hospital was Yichang Central People’s Hospital. On this disambiguates as Peking University People’s Hospital grid.411634.5 which is probably an error. Yichang city is in Western Hubei province about 200 km west of Wuhan, and about 1000 km south of Peking/Beijing. Yichang city was a centre in study 57, so these two cases were probably included in that series, Citation: Zheng, Tingting; Guo, Jianqiang; He, Wencong; Wang, Hao; Yu, Huiling; Ye, Hong. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnancy: 2 case reports on maternal and neonatal outcomes in Yichang city, Hubei Province, China, Medicine: July 17, 2020 – Volume 99 – Issue 29 – p e21334 doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000021334

24 July update – studies 208 to 211 added

Study 211 – 21 cases from Wuhan, China

21 term pregnancies with Covid-19 (click here or Chen-Bai2020_Article_MaternalAndInfantOutcomesOfFul). No mothers or babies died. All babies tested negative. The patients were cared for in Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. They probably overlap with those in studies 2, 8, 11, 15, 39, 55, 57, 59, 73, and 108Citation: Chen, Y., Bai, J. Maternal and infant outcomes of full-term pregnancy combined with COVID-2019 in Wuhan, China: retrospective case series. Arch Gynecol Obstet (2020).

Study 210 – 23 cases from Istanbul, Turkey

23/296 pregnant women tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection during one month’s screening from 27 April, in a “Coronavirus Pandemic Hospital” in Istanbul (click here or 10.1080@14767058.2020.1798398). Another 15 referral cases were treated over the same period. No pregnancy outcomes were reported. From author affiliations the unnamed hospital is probably Sehit Prof. Dr. Ilhan Varank Sancaktepe Training and Research Hospital. If so, these cases probably include those reported in study 146. Citation: Murat Yassa, Cihangir Yirmibes, Gul Cavusoglu, Hazal Eksi, Cevdet Dogu, Canberk Usta, Memis Ali Mutlu, Pinar Birol, Cagri Gulumser & Niyazi Tug. (2020). Outcomes of universal SARS-CoV-2 testing program in pregnant women admitted to hospital and the adjuvant role of lung ultrasound in screening: A prospective cohort study. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, DOI: 10.1080/14767058.2020.1798398

Study 209 – 51 placentas from infected pregnancies in New York

All 51 placentas from SARS-CoV-2 affected pregnancies were negative for SARS-Cov-2 by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry (click here or his.14215), Citation: Smithgall, M.C., Liu‐Jarin, X., Hamele‐Bena, D., Cimic, A., Mourad, M., Debelenko, L. and Chen, X. (2020), Third Trimester Placentas of SARS‐CoV‐2‐Positive Women: Histomorphology, including Viral Immunohistochemistry and in Situ Hybridization. Histopathology. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/his.14215

Study 208 – Ten cases from Porto, Portugal

Ten pregnant women with Covid-19 were cared for at Centro Hospitalar Universitario, Sao Joao, Porto, Portugal (click here or Perinatal management of SARS CoV 2 infection in a level III University Hospital). One women was admitted to intensive care but all mothers and babies survived. No babies tested positive. This hospital has not previously reported cases. Citation: Susana Pissarra, Marta Rosário, Marina Moucho & Henrique Soares (2020) Perinatal management of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a level III University Hospital, The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. DOI: 10.1080/14767058.2020.1786526

2 July update – studies 205 to 207 added

Study 207 – Mental health of 14 cases from London

Fourteen women with Covid-19 in pregnancy recorded their levels of anxiety & depression (click here or PIIS0301211520304796). No clinical outcomes reported. The hospital is not named but the authors note that this is an extension of the series in study 206 so must be North Middlesex. The patients are therefore also included in study 93. Citation: Kotabagi P, Nauta M, Fortune L, Yoong W, COVID-19 positive mothers are not more anxious or depressed than non COVID pregnant women during the pandemic: a pilot case-control comparison. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology (2020). doi:

Study 206 – Mental health of 11 cases from London

Eleven women with Covid-19 in pregnancy recorded their levels of anxiety & depression (click here or aogs.13928). No clinical outcomes reported. The authors note that these patients were treated at North Middlesex Hospital and included those in study 93. Citation: Kotabagi, P., Fortune, L., Essien, S., Nauta, M. and Yoong, W. (2020), Anxiety and depression levels among pregnant women with COVID‐19. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 99: 953-954. doi:10.1111/aogs.13928

Study 205 – 91 cases from Madrid

Of 91 pregnant women with Covid-19 treated in Hospital Universitario “12 de Octubre”, 4 required ventilation, but none died (click here or 10.1080@14767058.2020.1793320). 38 babies delivered, all testing negative immediately after birth, although one developed mild Covid-19 and tested positive at 6 days. These cases likely overlap with those in studies 151, 165 & 196. Citation: Patricia Barbero, Laura Mugüerza, Ignacio Herraiz, Antonio García Burguillo, Rafael San Juan, Laura Forcén, Inmaculada Mejía, Emma Batllori, María Dolores Montañez, Paloma Vallejo, Olga Villar, Diana García Alcazar & Alberto Galindo (2020) SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy: characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized and non-hospitalized women due to COVID-19. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. DOI: 10.1080/14767058.2020.1793320

21 July update – study 204 added

Study 204 – 7 screen positives from Newham, London

Seven pregnant women tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 out of 189 screened over a two week period 22nd April to 5th May, 2020 at Newham University Hospital  in East London (click here or PIIS0301211520304772). Only one was symptomatic. No outcomes reported. Citation: Abeysuriya S, Wasif S, Counihan C, Shah N, Iliodromiti S, Cutino-Moguel M-Teresa, Saeed F, Velauthar L, Universal Screening for SARS-CoV-2 in Pregnant Women at Term Admitted to an East London Maternity Unit, European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology (2020), doi:

19 July update – study 203 added.

Study 203 – 37 cases from Turkey

Of 100 pregnant women with possible Covid-19, 29 had the diagnosis confirmed by RT‐PCR, and a further eight were clinically high suspicious (click here or ijgo.13318). None died or were admitted to ITU. No babies died or tested positive. Patients were cared for at the Ministry of Health Ankara City Hospital which has not previously reported cases. The only previous Ankara case (study 31) was from a different hospital and the clinical details differ. Citation: Sahin, D., Tanacan, A., Erol, S.A., Anuk, A.T., Eyi, E.G., Ozgu‐ Erdinc, A.S., Yucel, A., Keskin, H.L., Tayman, C., Unlu, S., Kirca, F., Dinc, B., San, I., Parpucu, Ü.M., Surel, A.A. and Moraloglu, O.T. (2020). A pandemic center’s experience of managing pregnant women with COVID‐19 infection in Turkey: A prospective cohort study. Int J Gynecol Obstet. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/ijgo.13318

18 July update – studies 198 to 202 added

Study 202 – 80 cases from Pennsylvania

This preprint from reports 80 pregnant women who tested positive for IgG and/or IgM SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in two centers in Philadelphia (click here or Flannery 2020.07.08.20149179v1.full).  46 of the 72 who were tested also had a SARS-CoV-2 positive PCR result. 79 women delivered a liveborn infant. The outcome of the 80th woman was not reported. The hospitals are not named. The cases may overlap with studies 65 & 175 and possibly also with study 86.  Citation:Dustin D. Flannery, Sigrid Gouma, Miren B. Dhudasia, Sagori Mukhopadhyay, Madeline R. Pfeifer, Emily C. Woodford, Jeffrey S. Gerber, Claudia P. Arevalo, Marcus J. Bolton, Madison E. Weirick, Eileen C. Goodwin, Elizabeth M. Anderson, Allison R. Greenplate, Justin Kim, Nicholas Han, Ajinkya Pattekar, Jeanette Dougherty, Olivia Kuthuru, Divij Mathew, Amy. Baxter, Laura. Vella, JoEllen Weaver, Anurag Verma, Rita Leite, Jeffrey S. Morris, Daniel J. Rader, Michal A. Elovitz, E. John Wherry, Karen M. Puopolo, Scott E. Hensley. SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence Among Parturient Women medRxiv 2020.07.08.20149179; doi:

Study 201 – 20 maternal deaths from Brazil

Twenty COVID-19 related maternal deaths were identified from the Brazilian Ministry of Health surveillance system (click here or Takemoto Maternal mortality and COVID 19). Ten were in the Northeast region, and nine in the Southeast (5 in São Paulo). They probably overlap with those in studies 138, 182 & 194Citation: Maira L. S. Takemoto , Mariane O. Menezes , Carla B. Andreucci , Roxana Knobel , Liduína A. R. Sousa , Leila Katz , Eduardo B. Fonseca , Claudia G. Magalhães, Wanderson K. Oliveira , Jorge Rezende-Filho , Adriana S. O. Melo & Melania M. R. Amorim (2020): Maternal mortality and COVID-19, The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, DOI: 10.1080/14767058.2020.1786056

Study 200 – 23 cases from Birmingham, UK

Of 23 pregnant women with COVID-19, four were admitted to ITU and one died from basilar artery thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and diabetic ketoacidosis (click here or Antoun EJOG 1-s2.0-S0301211520304486-main). 20 babies were delivered, incl. one set of twins. All survived. Seven babies were tested for SARS-CoV-2 and all were negative. The hospital is unnamed but from its size and author affiliations is likely to be Birmingham Women’s Hospital which has not previously reported cases. However, they will have been included in the UKOSS report study 92. The clinical details of the maternal death suggest this is the same patient as reported in study 107 as having been delivered at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital. Citation: Antoun L, Taweel NE, Ahmed I, Patni S, Honest H, Maternal COVID-19 infection, clinical characteristics, pregnancy, and neonatal outcome A prospective cohort study, European Journal of Obstetrics and amp; Gynecology and Reproductive Biology (2020), doi:

Study 199 – case report of a miscarriage from France

A woman with Covid-19 miscarried at 20 weeks (click here or Hachem EJOG 1-s2.0-S0301211520304668-main). The hospital is unnamed but from author affiliation is René Dubos Hospital, Cergy-Pontoise, a northern suburb of Paris. No authors with this affiliation were included in the GROG series, study 150, so this case has probably not been reported before. Citation: Hachem R, Markou G, Veluppillai C, Poncelet C, Late miscarriage as a presenting manifestation of COVID-19, European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology (2020), doi:

Study 198 – 10 cases from Cleveland ohio

Ten pregnant women tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, of whom three were symptomatic (click here or Berkowitz AJOG PIIS0002937820307298). None required medical treatment beyond standard obstetric care. They were cared for at various hospitals managed by the Cleveland Clinic Foundation in Ohio, which appear to be all based around the town of Cleveland itself. If so they have not previously been reported. Citation: Berkowitz KM, Goje O, Eaton J. Implementation of universal testing for SARS-CoV-2 in pregnant women with intended admission for delivery. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2020), doi:

17 July update – studies 192 to 196 added

Study 197 – A case report from Mantova, Italy

A pregnant woman with Covid-19 at 24 weeks gestation was treated with convalescent plasma (click here or Grisolia AJOG MFM 1-s2.0-S258993332030118X-main). The following day her condition worsened, and she was transferred to ICU where she received non-invasive ventilation. After a 2nd dose of convalescent plasma she recovered. The pregnancy is ongoing.  The hospital is not named but from author affiliations was Carlo Poma Hospital, Mantova. Mantova is in Lombardy so this case was probably included in studies 32 & 64. Citation: Grisolia G, Franchini M, Glingani C, Inglese F, Garuti M, Beccaria M, Capuzzo M, Pinto A, Pavan G, Righetto L, Perotti C, Zampriolo P, De Donno G, Convalescent plasma for COVID-19 in pregnancy: a case report and review, American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM (2020), doi:

Study 196 – 42 cases from Spain

42 women with COVID-19 in the third trimester of pregnancy from 14 hospitals in Spain delivered 42 babies (click here or Gabriel apa.15474). One mother died. 3/37 babies tested positive. No babies died. The authors wrote on behalf of the Neo-COVID-19 Research Group. The hospitals were, 12 de Octubre, Clínico San Carlos, Fuenlabrada, Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Getafe, Josep Trueta, La Paz, Hospitales-Madrid Group, Príncipe de Asturias, Puerta de Hierro-Majadahonda, Rey Juan Carlos, Río Hortega, Santiago de Compostela, Sant Joan, Severo Ochoa Leganés, Vall d’Hebrón and the European Institute of Perinatal Mental Health. The cases probably overlap with those in studies 151, 158, 165, 185 &  191. Citation: Marín Gabriel, M.A., Cuadrado, I., Álvarez Fernández, B., González Carrasco, E., Alonso Díaz, C., Llana Martín, I., Sánchez, L., Olivas, C., de las Heras, S., Criado, E. and (2020), Multi‐centre Spanish study found no incidences of viral transmission in infants born to mothers with COVID‐19. Acta Paediatr. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/apa.15474

Study 195 – 14 first trimester cases from Turin

14 women tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in the first trimester (click here or cosma turin jmv.26267). No outcomes reported. They were cared for at Sant’ Anna Hospital, Turin, Italy, so are likely included in the 23 first trimester cases in study 167. Citation: Cosma, S., Borella, F., Carosso, A., Sciarrone, A., Cusato, J., Corcione, S., Mengozzi, G., Preti, M., Katsaros, D., Di Perri, G. and Benedetto, C. (2020), The “scar” of a pandemic: cumulative incidence of COVID‐19 during the first trimester of pregnancy. J Med Virol. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/jmv.26267

Study 194 – Three cases from Vitoria, Espirito Santo State. Brazil.

Two women with severe Covid-19 in pregnancy, and one with severe disease postnatally, required prologed ICU admission and ventilation (click here or dos Reis Case Rep Brazil). One mother died. All three babies tested negative and survived. This is the first scientific report from this city. However, the woman who died may be included in studies 66, 138 & 182. Citation: Reis Helena Lucia Barroso dos, Boldrini Neide Aparecida Tosato, Caldas João Victor Jacomele, Paz Ana Paula Calazans da, Ferrugini Carolina Loyola Prest, Miranda Angelica Espinosa. Severe coronavirus infection in pregnancy: challenging cases report. Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2020 July 17] ; 62: e49. Available from: Epub July 13, 2020.

Study 193 – Case report from Belgium

A pregnant woman with twins developed mild Covid-19 at 22 weeks gestion (click here or Pulinx 10096_2020_Article_3964). She was nursed at home, but at 24 weeks went into spontanous labour. One twin was stillborn and the other died soon after birth. Amniotic fluid and placental tissue tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. From author affiliations this was probably Sint-Trudo Hospital in Sint-Truiden, which has not previous reported cases. Citation: Pulinx, B., Kieffer, D., Michiels, I. et al. Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection and preterm birth. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis (2020).

Study 192 – Case report from Zhongshan, in Guangdong Province, China.

A mother with Covid-19 at 35 weeks gestation suffered from a cytokine storm, and required both ventilation and ECMO (click here or Wang 1-s2.0-S0002937820307286-main). She survived, but the baby died. As the authors note this case was included in Study 3. The hospital, mother’s age, gestational age and baby outcome all suggest she is also the same woman as in studies 57 and 81. Citation:  Wang X, Wang D, He S, The role of a cytokine storm in severe COVID-19 disease in pregnancy, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2020), doi:

16 July update – studies 188 – 191 added

Study 191 – 27 cases from Barcelona, Spain

This preprint reports 27 pregnant women with COVID-19 of whom seven developed some features of HELLP syndrome (click here or 2020.07.10.20133801v1.full). The details are difficult to interpret but I think 12 delivered, 5 by Caesarean, and no mothers or babies died. The patients were cared for in two unnamed hospitals which from author affiliations were probably Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau and Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, both in Barcelona. These hospitals have not previously reported cases under their own names. However, the patients may have been included in the Spanish Covi-Preg registry study 151. Citation: Francesc Figueras, Elisa LLurba, Raigam Martinez-Portilla, Josefina Mora, Fatima Crispi, Eduard Gratacos. COVID-19 causing HELLP-like syndrome in pregnancy and role of angiogenic factors for differential diagnosis. medRxiv 2020.07.10.20133801; doi:

Study 190 – Two cases from Bergamo, Italy

Two pregant women with diabetes contracted Covid -19. Clinical details are given for only one who recovered (click here or ijgo.13306). Both were cared for in Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital in Bergamo between Feb 22 & May 17, 2020 so have probably been reported in studies 32, 64, 114 & 117. Citation: Dodesini, A.R., Galliani, S., Ciriello, E., Bellante, R. and Trevisan, R. (2020), Pre‐gestational diabetes during the COVID‐19 pandemic in Bergamo, Italy. Int J Gynecol Obstet. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/ijgo.13306

Study 189 – 185 cases from Kuwait

This preprint reports 185 pregnant women with Covid-19 treated in New-Jahra Hospital, where all pregnant women with Covid-19 in Kuwait are treated, between March 15th & May 31st 2020 (click here or 2020.07.10.20150623v1.full). No mothers died or required ECMO, although two required ventilation. Three women miscarried, and 41 babies delivered. Two babies tested positive but none died.  Citation: Amal Ayed, Alia Embaireeg, Asmaa Benawadth, Wadha Al-Fouzan, Majeda Hammoud, Monif Alhathal, Abeer Alzaydai, Mariam Ayed. Maternal and perinatal characteristics and outcomes of pregnancies complicated with COVID-19 in Kuwait. medRxiv 2020.07.10.20150623; doi:

Study 188 – Four, possibly five, cases from Bergamo, Italy

Four pregnant women with Covid-19 and a further woman who had possible pneumonia one day after delivering twins and two months later had SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies, are reported (click here or 10.1080@14767058.2020.1791817) All mothers and babies survived although one of the four definite Covid-19 mothers developed Guillain-Barré syndrome and remains in hospital. All patients were cared for Bolognini Hospital which is a “spoke center” for COVID 19 in pregnancy in Seriate, Bergamo in Lombardy. It is thus likely that they were included in studies 32, 64 & 117. Citation: Paola Algeri, Valentina Stagnati, Maria Donata Spazzini, Cristina Bellan, Alessandro Montanelli, Gianluigi Patelli & Massimo Ciammella (2020) Considerations on COVID-19 pregnancy: a cases series during outbreak in Bergamo Province, North Italy, The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, DOI: 10.1080/14767058.2020.1791817

15 July update – study 187 added

Study 187 – Case report of neonatal infection from Paris

A woman contracted Covid-19 at 35 weeks, required Caesarean for fetal distress, and recovered with supportive treatment (click here or s41467-020-17436-6). The baby was initially well but developed neurological symptoms on day 3. Maternal nasopharynx (NP), blood, placental, vaginal and amniotic samples were all positive for SARS-CoV-2. Baby blood and rectal samples, as well as NP samples on days 1, 3 and 18, were also positive. The baby recovered with supportive treatment. From author affiliations the hospital was Antoine Béclère, Paris. Although not cited, this is case two in study 48. The papers share two authors, Alexandra J Vivanti & Alexandra Benachi, from the same hospital, and all reported maternal and baby characteristics, as well as all the mother’s blood values on the day of birth, are identical. Citation: Vivanti, A.J., Vauloup-Fellous, C., Prevot, S. et al. Transplacental transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nat Commun 11, 3572 (2020).

13 July update – study 186 added

Study 186 – Case report from Dallas, Texas

A woman with Covid-19 gave birth vaginally at 34 weeks (click here or INTRAUTERINE_TRANSMISSION_OF_SARS_COV_2_INFECTION.96099). Despite isolation from the mother, the baby was infected SARS-CoV-2. Mother and baby were cared for at Parkland Health & Hospital System, Dallas, Texas which has not previously reported cases. Citation: Sisman, Julide; Jaleel, Mambarambath A; Moreno, Wilmer; Rajaram, Veena; Collins, Rebecca R.J; Savani, Rashmin; Rakheja, Dinesh; Evans, Amanda S. INTRAUTERINE TRANSMISSION OF SARS-COV-2 INFECTION IN A PRETERM INFANT, The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: July 10, 2020 – Volume Online First – Issue – doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002815

12 July update – studies 183 to 185 added

Study 185 – Two cases from Spain

The fetuses of two pregnant women with Covid-19 developed transient skin oedema at 21 and 25 weeks gestation (click here or Fetal_Transient_Skin_Edema_in_Two_Pregnant_Women.97307). One mother, cared for at Vall d’Hebron University Hospital in Barcelona, had severe disease requiring ventilation. The other, hospital not stated, had mild disease only. Amniotic fluid was negative for SARS-CoV-2 in both cases. Both resolved and the pregnancies are ongoing. The Barcelona case at least was probably included in study 140. Citation: Garcia-Manau P, Garcia-Ruiz I, Rodo C, et al. Fetal Transient Skin Edema in Two Pregnant Women With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 7]. Obstet Gynecol. 2020;10.1097/AOG.0000000000004059. doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000004059

Study 184 – 100 cases from Paris

One hundred pregnant women with Covid-19 were treated in four Paris hospitals between March 12 & April 13, 2020 (click here). Ten were admitted to ICU of whom 9 required intubation. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, but one neonatal death due to prematurity. All neonates were tested for SARS-CoV-2. One was positive but did not show signs of respiratory illness. The hospitals were Antoine Béclère, Clamart; Bicêtre Hospital, Le Kremlin Bicêtre; Louis-Mourier, Colombes; and Centre Hospitalier Sud Francilien, Evry. They therefore include one of the cases in study 48, are included in study 150 and probably also overlap with those in study 157. Citation: Vivanti AJ, Mattern J, Vauloup-Fellous C, Jani J, Rigonnot L, El Hachem L, Le Gouez A, Desconclois C, Ben M’Barek I, Sibiude J, Benachi A, Picone O, Cordier AG. Retrospective Description of Pregnant Women Infected with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 6;26(9). doi: 10.3201/eid2609.202144. Online ahead of print.

Study 183 – 18 cases from Renmin hospital in Wuhan

Between Jan 30, & Mar 1, 2020, 10 clinically diagnosed and 8 swab positive pregnant women with COVID-19 were treated at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University (click here or s12884-020-03026-3). These cases probably overlap with studies 10, 36, 37, 40, and 80. They are also likely to be included in studies 55 & 57. Citation: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) infection during late pregnancy: a report of 18 patients from Wuhan, China. Zhang L, Dong L, Ming L, Wei M, Li J, Hu R, Yang J. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2020 Jul 8;20(1):394. doi: 10.1186/s12884-020-03026-3.

11 July update study 181 & 182  added. Latter HT Fred Peret.

Study 182 – 124 maternal deaths from Covid-19 in Brazil

Between Feb 26 & June 18, 978 pregnant and postpartum women with COVID-19 were registered with the Brazilian Ministry of Health’s Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Surveillance System, of whom 124 died (click here or IJOGfinal (1)). They probably include five cases from study 66Citation: Takemoto, M.L.S., Menezes, M.O., Andreucci, C.B., Nakamura‐Pereira, M., Amorim, M.M.R., Katz, L. and Knobel, R. (2020), The tragedy of COVID‐19 in Brazil: 124 maternal deaths and counting. Int J Gynecol Obstet. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/ijgo.13300

Study 181 – Rise in stillbirths during pandemic in London

Nineteen women with Covid-19 were cared for at St Georges Hospital in London during the period February 1 to June 14, 2020. None experienced stillbirth. However the overall stillbirth rate in the hospital was significantly higher than in the pre-pandemic period (click here or jama_khalil_2020_ld_200076). Included in study 92. Citation: Khalil A, von Dadelszen P, Draycott T, Ugwumadu A, O’Brien P, Magee L. Change in the Incidence of Stillbirth and Preterm Delivery During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA. Published online July 10, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.12746

4th July update – studies 178 -180 added.

Study 180 – case report of postnatal Covid-19 from Monza

A mother developed pyrexia on day two after a normal birth, and both her and her baby tested positive (click here or e20201121.full). The baby was cared for in Fondazione Monza e Brianza per il Bambino e la sua Mamma and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale-Monza. Monza is in Lombardy so this case may be included in studies 32, 64, 109 & 114. However as a postnatal case it may not. We’re keeping an open mind.  Citation: Sinelli M, Paterlini G, Citterio M, et al. Early Neonatal SARS-CoV-2 Infection Manifesting With Hypoxemia Requiring Respiratory Support. Pediatrics. 2020;146(1):e20201121

Study 179 – 67 cases from New York

67 women with SARS-CoV-2 infection from March 13 to April 24, (click here or s-0040-1713851). Patients cared for in seven hospitals within the Northwell Health system in New York: North Shore University Hospital, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Long Island Jewish Forest Hills, Huntington Hospital, Southside Hospital, Lenox Hill Hospital, and Staten Island University Hospital. The patients probably overlap with those reported in studies 49, 83, 113,118,134 & 162. Citation: Moti Gulersen, Matthew J. Blitz, Burton Rochelson, Michael Nimaroff, Weiwei Shan, Eran Bornstein Clinical Implications of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in the Viable Preterm Period. Am J Perinatol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713851

Study 178 – Ten cases from Wuhan

Ten pregnant women with COVID-19, treated in the Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University (grid.413247.7) from Jan 20 to Feb 6 (click here or 10.1371@journal.pone.0235134). These women are probably also included in studies 1, 13, 55 & 57, and may also overlap with study 75. Citation: Gong X, Song L, Li H, Li L, Jin W, Yu K, et al. (2020) CT characteristics and diagnostic value of COVID-19 in pregnancy. PLoS ONE 15(7): e0235134.

3rd July update – study 177 added. Study 176 removed. Duplicate of study 89.  Jim’s mistake. HT Keelin.

Study 177 – CTG changes in 12 Covid-19 pregnancies

Intrapartum electronic fetal cardiotocograms (CTGs) from 11 women with Covid-19 and one antepartum CTG at 28 weeks, were evaluated using a physiological system (click here or PIIS0301211520304243). All eleven delivered babies had normal Apgar scores and cord pH. No details of maternal severity, mode of delivery or other baby details were given. Some patients had been cared for in Puerta de Hierro hospital, Madrid, which also included cases in studies 125 and 151.  Others came from Germans Trias i Pujol Hospital, Badalona, a northern suberb of Barcelona, which has not previously reported cases. Citation: Gracia-Perez-Bonfils A, Martinez-Perez O, Llurba E, Chandraharan E, Fetal heart rate changes on the cardiotocograph trace secondary to maternal COVID-19 infection, European Journal of Obstetrics and amp; Gynecology and Reproductive Biology (2020), doi:

1 July update – study 176 added.

Study 176 – Case report from San Francisco. Deleted 3 July duplicate of study 89

A 34 year old woman contracted Covid-19 at 28 weeks gestation (click here or Acute_Respiratory_Distress_Syndrome_in_a_Preterm.11). She required ventilation and was delivered by Caesarean section. The baby tested negative. Both recovered. The hospital is not named but authors are all affiliated with University of California, San Francisco. Citation: Blauvelt, Christine A. MD; Chiu, Catherine MD; Donovan, Anne L. MD; Prahl, Mary MD; Shimotake, Thomas K. MD; George, Ronald B. MD, FRCPC; Schwartz, Brian S. MD; Farooqi, Naghma A. MD; Ali, Syed S. MD; Cassidy, Arianna MD; Gonzalez, Juan M. MD, PhD; Gaw, Stephanie L. MD, PhD Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in a Preterm Pregnant Patient With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), Obstetrics & Gynecology: July 2020 – Volume 136 – Issue 1 – p 46-51 doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003949

30 June update – study 175 added

Study 175 – 5 cases from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, US

Five pregnant women with Covid-19 were treated with remdesivir (click here or mccoy remdesevir ajogmfm). Three were ventilated, four delivered and all recovered. One pregnancy is ongoing.  All neonates tested negative. From author affiliations these cases may overlap with studies 65 and 86. Citation: Mccoy JA, Short WR, Srinivas SK, Levine LD, Hirshberg A, Compassionate use remdesivir for treatment of severe COVID-19 in pregnant women at a United States academic center, American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM (2020), doi:

26 June update –  study 174 added

Study 174 – US CDC Covid-19 & pregnancy weekly tracking data

The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) are now publishing weekly COVID-19 in pregnancy tracking data. The June 25th update (click here) duplicates that in study 172. Citation: US CDC Weekly COVID-19 Pregnancy Data; Pregnant women with COVID-19, United States [January 22-June 23, 2020] Accessed 26 June 2020.

25 June update – studies 171 to 173 added. (Study 173 belatedly). Study 43 withdrawn

Study 173 – 33 cases from Covid-Net

An April 6th MMWR, which we had previously missed, of SARS-CoV-2 hospitalisations reported to COVID-NET, a network of hospitals representing about 10% of the United States, included 33 pregnant women of whom 3 (9%) had been hospitalised (click here or mm6915e3-H). These cases overlap with studies 171 and 172. Citation: Garg S, Kim L, Whitaker M, et al. Hospitalization Rates and Characteristics of Patients Hospitalized with Laboratory-Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 — COVID-NET, 14 States, March 1–30, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69:458–464. DOI: icon

Study 172 – 8,207 pregnant woman with SARS-CoV-2 from CDC

Of 8,207 pregnant women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and were reported to the US Centers For Disease Control by 7th June, 2,587 (31.5%) were hospitalised, 120 (1.5%) admitted to ICU, 42 (0.5%) ventilated, and 16 (0.2%) died. Comparative figures for 83,205 non-pregnant women in the same age group were; 4,840 (5.8) hospitalised, 757 (0.9%) admitted to ICU, 225 (0.3%) ventilated, 208 (0.2%) died (click here or mm6925a1-H). Citation: Ellington S, Strid P, Tong VT, et al. Characteristics of Women of Reproductive Age with Laboratory-Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 Infection by Pregnancy Status — United States, January 22–June 7, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69:769–775. DOI: icon

Study 171 – 36 cases from Covid-Net 

In this MedRxiv preprint, of 2,491 adults hospitalised with Covid-19, in the US Covid-Net database (154 acute hospitals in 13 states), 26 were pregnant. This represent 12.9% of the 279 women of childbearing age (15–49 years) in the cohort (click here or 2020.05.18.20103390v1.full). [Comment – see table 1. The percentage seems to be wrong.] Citation: Lindsay Kim, Shikha Garg, Alissa O’Halloran, Michael Whitaker, Huong Pham, Evan J. Anderson, Isaac Armistead, Nancy M. Bennett, Laurie Billing, Kathryn Como-Sabetti, Mary Hill, Sue Kim, Maya L. Monroe, Alison Muse, Arthur Reingold, William Schaffner, Melissa Sutton, H. Keipp Talbot, Salina M. Torres, Kimberly Yousey-Hindes, Rachel A Holstein, Charisse Cummings, Lynette Brammer, Aron Hall, Alicia Fry, Gayle E. Langley. Interim Analysis of Risk Factors for Severe Outcomes among a Cohort of Hospitalized Adults Identified through the U.S. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) medRxiv 2020.05.18.20103390; doi:

24 June update – studies 165 to 170 added

Study 170 – 241 cases from the Netherlands

The 19th June update of NethOSS (click here), accessed 24 June 2020, contains the following. 6/224 women with brief additional details were admitted to intensive care. One mother died. 69 women have given birth, 26 by Caesarean. 152 pregnancies are ongoing. No baby has died. No babies were infected. Citation: See Studies 42, 46, 120, 141, & 147. Available here. Accessed 24 June 2020.

Study 169 – 19 June ICNARC report

The 19th June ICNARC update (click here or ICNARC COVID-19 report 2020-06-19.pdf) contains 26 currently, and 37 recently, pregnant women critically ill with Covid-19.  Of these 10 are currently, and 24 have in the past,  received advanced respiratory support. NOTE – ICNARC has recently started reporting pregnancy data subdivided by white/non white ethnicity.

Study 168 – The PRIORITY study 24 June 2020

The PRIORITY (Pregnancy Coronavirus Outcomes Registry) study (click here) has issued no formal reports yet. However the dashboard (click here accessed 24 June 2020) shows 882 participants, by age group, gestational age band, ethnic group and US state of residence. Citation: University of California San Francisco. PRIORITY Study dashboard Accessed 24 June 2020.

Study 167 – 23 women in the first trimester from Turin

Of 23 women in this preprint from Medxiv, testing positive for SARS-Cov2 in the first trimester, 11 miscarried and 12 had ongoing prgnancies (click here or 2020.06.19.20135749v1.full). 12 October update. Published in AJOG here or PIIS0002937820311777). This was a case control study comparing SARS-Cov2 rates between women experiencing miscarriage and matched women with ongoing pregnancy. The rates did not differ significantly. The patients were cared for at S. Anna Hospital, Turin, which has not previously reported cases in the first trimester. Citation: Stefano Cosma, Andrea Carosso, Jessica Cusato, Fulvio Borella, Marco Carosso, Marialuisa Bovetti, Claudia Filippini, Antonio D’Avolio, Valeria Ghisetti, Giovanni Di Perri, Chiara Benedetto. COVID-19 and first trimester spontaneous abortion: a case-control study of 225 pregnant patients. medRxiv 2020.06.19.20135749; doi: 

12 October update. Published in AJOG (here or PIIS0002937820311777). AJOG citation: Stefano COSMA, Andrea R. CAROSSO, Jessica CUSATO, Fulvio BORELLA, Marco CAROSSO, Marialuisa BOVETTI, Claudia FILIPPINI, Antonio D’AVOLIO, Valeria GHISETTI, Giovanni DI PERRI, Chiara BENEDETTO, COVID-19 and first trimester spontaneous abortion: a case-control study of 225 pregnant patients, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2020, ISSN 0002-9378,

Study 166 – 3 cases from Hubei, China

Three pregnant woman with Covid-19 were all delivered by Caesarean (click here or E603.full).  The babies all tested negative. The mothers came from a cohort of 166 pregnant women testing positive for SARS-Cov19 in a predefined administrative region containing 12 hospitals, including the Xiangyang First People’s Hospital in Hubei, China. This hospital is not found on Citation: Peng An, Bradford J. Wood, Wei Li, Min Zhang, Yingjian Ye. Postpartum exacerbation of antenatal COVID-19 pneumonia in 3 women. CMAJ Jun 2020, 192 (22) E603-E606; DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.200553

Study 165 – 65 cases from Madrid

Of 65 women with Covid-19, 13 were diagnosed postnatally. Of the 52 antenatal cases, 32 developed pneumonia and two required ICU admission (click here or PIIS2589537020301516. No mother died.  6/32 women with pneumonia had delivered and no babies were infected. Patients were cared for at University Hospital “12 de Octubre”. They therefore probably overlap with those reported in study 151 but differ from those in study 125. Citation: R. San-Juan et al., Incidence and clinical profiles of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant women: A single-centre cohort study from Spain, EClinicalMedicine (2020),

23 June update – studies 163 & 164 added

Study 164 – Two cases from New York

One woman with severe Covid-19 miscarried at 22 weeks. At the time of writing she remained ventilated. Another woman required Caesarean birth at 29 weeks and recovered. Her baby required intubation and tested positive for SARS-Cov2 at 6 days (click here or Futterman NY s-0040-1712978).  The hospital is not named. Author affiliations are Dept. OBGYN, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, which is affiliated with multiple clinical sites. These cases may therefor have been previously reported. Citation: Itamar Futterman, Miriam Toaff, Liel Navi, Camille A. Clare. COVID-19 and HELLP: Overlapping Clinical Pictures in Two Gravid Patients. Am J Perinatol Rep 2020;10:e179–e182.

Study 163 – 9 cases with placental histology from Milan

Of 9 women with SARS-CoV2 infection delivered between March and April 2020 at Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda – Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico (Milan), all mothers recovered and all babies tested negative (click here or Cribiu Eur JOG IIS0301211520304164). Placental histology is reported. Although the hospital name differs these cases are probably included in studies 32 & 64. Citation: Cribi `u FM, Croci GA, Gobbo AD, Rizzuti T, Iurlaro E, Tondo M, Viscardi A, Bosari S, Ferrero S, HISTOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PLACENTA IN COVID19 PREGNANT WOMEN, European Journal of Obstetrics and amp; Gynecology and Reproductive Biology (2020), doi:

21 June update – studies 161 & 162 added

Study 162 – 462 cases (70 severe) from New York

Of 462 pregnant women with Covid-19, 70 had severe disease, 14 were admitted to ICU, and two died (click here or PIIS0002937820306360). The patients were cared for in the Northwell Hospital network which includes Maimonides Medical Centre. The paper includes a statement about severe case overlap with studies 113, 118 & 134. Shared authorship suggests overlap with studies 49 and 83 as well. Citation: Blitz MJ, Rochelson B, Minkoff H, Meirowitz N, Prasannan L, London V, Rafael TJ, Chakravarthy S, Bracero LA, Wasden SW, Pachtman Shetty SL, Santandreu O, Chervenak FA, Schwartz BM, Nimaroff M, Maternal Mortality Among Women with COVID-19 Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2020), doi:

Study 161 – 54 cases from Strasbourg

Of 54 pregnant women with confirmed (n=38) or suspected (n=16) COVID-19 in pregnancy treated at Strasbourg University Hospital (France) from March 1 to April 3, there was one miscarriage, 21 live births (12 vaginal, 9 cesarean), and 32 ongoing pregnancies (click here or PIIS0002937820306396). Five women were admitted to ICU, three required mechanical ventilation and one ECMO. No mothers died, although at the time of writing the woman on ECMO remained on it. All babies tested negative & none died. Strasbourg doctors co-authored the GROG report, so these cases are probably included in study 150. Citation: Sentilhes L, De Marcillac F, Jouffrieau C, Kuhn P, Thuet V, Hansmann Y, Ruch Y, Fafi-Kremer S, Deruelle P, COVID-19 in pregnancy was associated with maternal morbidity and preterm birth, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2020), doi:

18 June update – studies 157-160 added

Study 160 – 241 cases from New York

Of 241 pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed SARSCoV-2 infection who gave birth between March 13 & April 12, there were 245 live births to 241 women (6 sets of twins), & 2 stillbirths (click here or Characteristics_and_Outcomes_of_241_Births_to.97310). 17 women were admitted to ITU and 9 intubated. No mothers died, although one woman remained intubated at time of writing. 27% of neonates were admitted to NICU. Of liveborns with SARS-CoV-2 test results 236/230 tested negative. No further neonatal outcomes reported. The five hospitals were “Montefiore Medical Center; Mount Sinai Health System, including Mount Sinai Hospital and Mount Sinai West; its affiliate, NYC Health and Hospitals- Elmhurst Hospital; NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital- Columbia University; and New York University Langone Health, including NYU Langone Hospitals, Manhattan campus, and NYU Langone Hospitals-Brooklyn”. These cases therefore likely overlap with studies 14, 27, 41, 49, 83, 85, 86, 95, 95, 119, 135, 136, & 152. They probably do not overlap with women in studies 61, 113, 118, 122 & 134, which included women cared for in different New York centres. Women in Study 99 are unclear. Citation: Khoury, Rasha MD, MPH; Bernstein, Peter S. MD; Debolt, Chelsea MD; Stone, Joanne MD; Sutton, Desmond M. MD; Simpson, Lynn L. MD; Limaye, Meghana A. MD; Roman, Ashley S. MD; Fazzari, Melissa PhD; Penfield, Christina A. MD; Ferrara, Lauren MD; Lambert, Calvin MD; Nathan, Lisa MD; Wright, Rodney MD; Bianco, Angela MD; Wagner, Brian MD; Goffman, Dena MD; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia MD; Schweizer, William E. MD; Avila, Karina MPH; Khaksari, Bijan MPH; Proehl, Meghan MPH; Heitor, Fabiano MD; Monro, Johanna BS; Keefe, David L. MD; D’Alton, Mary E. MD; Brodman, Michael MD; Makhija, Sharmila K. MD; Dolan, Siobhan M. MD Characteristics and Outcomes of 241 Births to Women With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection at Five New York City Medical Centers, Obstetrics & Gynecology: June 16, 2020 – Volume Publish Ahead of Print – Issue – doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004025

Study 159 – Three severe cases from New Jersey

Three pregnant women with Covid-19 required ventilation (click here or s-0040-1713664). All three recovered and their pregnancies are ongoing. They were cared for in Morristown Medical Center and St. Peter’s University Medical Center in central New Jersey, neither of which have previously reported cases. Citation: Lucarelli E, Behn C, Lashley S, Smok D, Benito C, Oyelese Y. Mechanical Ventilation in Pregnancy Due to COVID-19: A Cohort of Three Cases [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 16]. Am J Perinatol. 2020;10.1055/s-0040-1713664. doi:10.1055/s-0040-1713664

Study 158 – Four patients undergoing amniocentesis from Spain.

Four pregnant women with Covid-19 underwent midtrimester amniocentesis for prenatal diangosis of other conditions (click here or 1-s2.0-S0014256520301569-main). No amniotic samples tested positive. The hospital is not named but from author affiliations is probably Hospital Universitario Maternal-Infantil de Jaén, Jaén. This hospital has not previously reported cases, but these cases may be included in study 151 which included registry cases from Spain. Citation: Hijona Elósegui JJ, et al. ¿Existe transmisión materno-fetal del SARS-CoV-2 durante la gestación? Rev Clin Esp. 2020.

Study 157 – 88 cases from France

Eighty eight pregnant women with Covid-19 responded to an anonymous internet survey hosted by the French television pregnancy show “la Maison des Maternelles” (click here or PIIS030121152030364X). 6 had been sufficiently severe to require oxygen. 14 had delivered, 5 by Caesarean. Many are probably included in study 150. Citation: J. Cohen, et al., Covid-19 in pregnant women: General data from a French National Survey, Eur J Obstet Gynecol (2020),

16 June update study 156 added

Study 156 – Case report of Covid-19, pregnancy & pancreatitis

A 36-year-old woman contracted Covid-19 at 33 weeks (click here or 1-s2.0-S2214911220300588-main). Pancreatitis was diagnosed on the basis of raised lipase, despite normal amylase. She recovered and was later delivered by Caesarean. Both mother & baby discharged  in stable condition. Author affiliations Saint Joseph Hospital, Denver, Colorado. Citation: Sarah R. Rabice, Paulina C. Altshuler, Claire Bovet, Cathlyn Sullivan, Amy J. Gagnon. COVID-19 infection presenting as pancreatitis in a pregnant woman: A case report. Case Reports in Women’s Health. Volume 27, 2020, e00228, ISSN 2214-9112,

15 June update study 155 added

Study 155 – Case report of placental infection from Yale

This MedRxiv preprint (click here or SARS-CoV-2 infection of the placenta (002)) (click here for published peer reviewed version update 24 June) reports a 35-year-old woman who contracted Covid-19 at 22 weeks gestation. She had coagulopathy and hypertension, and was offered and accepted pregnancy termination, which was performed under GA with extubation on day 1.  SARS-CoV-2 RNA was present at high levels in the placenta, and virions were visible on electron microscopy. The hospital is not named but author affiliations are Yale School of Medicine. The case is therefore probably included in study 132Citation: Hillary Hosier, Shelli Farhadian, Raffaella Morotti, Uma Deshmukh, Alice Lu-Culligan, Katherine Campbell, Yuki Yasumoto, Chantal Vogels, Arnau Casanovas-Massana, Pavithra Vijayakumar, Bertie Geng, Camila Odio, John Fournier, Anderson Brito, Joseph Fauver, Feimei Liu, Tara Alpert, Reshef Tal, Klara Szigeti-Buck, Sudhir Perincheri, Christopher Larsen, Aileen Gariepy, Gabriela Aguilar, Kristen Fardelmann, Malini Harigopal, Hugh Taylor, Christian Pettker, Anne Wyllie, Charles Dela Cruz, Aaron Ring, Nathan Grubaugh, Albert Ko, Tamas Horvath, Akiko Iwasaki, Uma Reddy, Heather Lipkind.  SARS-CoV-2 Infection of the Placenta. medRxiv 2020.04.30.20083907; doi:

Update 24 June. Peer reviewed citation, [online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 23]. J Clin Invest. 2020;139569. doi:10.1172/JCI139569

11 June update studies 154 & 154 added

Study 154 – Case report from Northwick Park Hospital, London

A 34-year woman with immunologic thrombocytopaenia developed a cough, fever, petechiae and gum bleeding at 20 weeks gestation (click here or Nesr BJH case bjh.16928). She had a low platelet count, swabbed positive for SARS-CoV-2 and recovered. Pregnancy outcome not reported, but by implication ongoing. Case presumably included in study 92.  Citation: Nesr, G., Garnett, C., Bailey, C. and Arami, S. (2020), ITP flare with mild COVID‐19 infection in pregnancy: A case report. Br J Haematol. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/bjh.16928

Study 153 – Case report from Jordan

A 30-year-old woman, contracted mild Covid-19 at 36 weeks gestation (click here or Al Zaghal Case Rep Jordan 1-s2.0-S2214911220300424-main). She delivered by Caesarean. The baby tested negative. Both recovered. The first report from Jordan. Citation: Laila A. AlZaghal, Najwa AlZaghal, Safwan O. Alomari, Nail Obeidat, Basil Obeidat, Wail A. Hayajneh. Multidisciplinary team management and cesarean delivery for a Jordanian woman infected with SARS-COV-2: A case report. Case Reports in Women’s Health 27 (2020)

9 June update – studies 151 & 152 added.

Study 152 – 2 severe cases from New York

Two women with Covid-19 required ventilation and caesarean delivery (click here or Silverstein AmJPerinatol Rep s-0040-1712925). Both neonates tested negative. Both mothers recovered. The hospital(s) are not named but author affiliations suggest either Langone Medical Center or Bellevue Hospital Center. The cases are therefore probably included in studies 85 & 86, and possibly also in studies 49 & 83. Citation: Jenna S. Silverstein, Meghana A. Limaye, Sara G. Brubaker, Ashley S. Roman, Judita Bautista, Judith Chervenak, Adam J. Ratner, Philip M. Sommer, Nicole M. Roselli, Charlisa D. Gibson, David Ellenberg, Christina A. Penfield. Acute Respiratory Decompensation Requiring Intubation in Pregnant Women with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Am J Perinatol Rep 2020;10:e169–e175.

Study 151 – 82 cases from Spain

Of 82 women with singleton pregnancies and Covid-19, who delivered within 14 days of disease onset, collected from from 96 level 2 or 3 maternity hospitals in Spain, 9 were admitted to ICU and 7 ventilated (click here or jama_martnezperez_2020_ld_200062). Five babies tested positive. No mothers or babies died. The hospitals are not named but author affiliations include Puerta de Hierro University Hospital, 12 Octubre University Hospital, & Gregorio Marañon University Hospital, all three from Madrid. Three other authors are associated with the Covi-Preg registry in Switzerland (click here). The cases probably overlap with those in studies 53125. Citation: Martínez-Perez O, Vouga M, Cruz Melguizo S, et al. Association Between Mode of Delivery Among Pregnant Women With COVID-19 and Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Spain. JAMA. Published online June 08, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.10125

8 June update – study 150 added.

Study 150 – 617 cases from France

Thirty three maternity units from the “Groupe de Recherche en Obstétrique et Gynécologie (GROG)” treated 617 pregnant women with COVID-19 between March 1 & April 14 (click here or GIlles France JOG HR). Eighty three women required nasal oxygen, a further 10 non-invasive ventilation, a further 29 mechanical ventilation and a further six, ECMO.  One woman died. There were 5 miscarriages and 7 stillbirths among the 181 pregnancies which had ended. Among the 190 live births (7 twins & 1 set of triplets) there was one neonatal death. Two babies tested positive. The 33 maternity units (including 24 tertiary referral centers) are not named, although 19 can be guessed from the author affiliations. Citation: Kayem G, Alessandrini V, Azria E, Blanc J, Bohec C, Bornes M, Bretelle F, Ceccaldi P-Franc¸ois, Chalet Y, Chauleur C, Cordier A-Gael, Deruelle P, Desbri`ere R, Doret M, Dreyfus M, Driessen M, Fermaut M, Gallot D, Garab´edian C, Huissoud C, Lecarpentier E, Luton D, Morel O, Perrotin F, Picone O, Rozenberg P, Schmitz T, Sentilhes L, Sroussi J, Vayssi`ere C, Verspyck E, Vivanti AJ, Winer N, A snapshot of the Covid-19 pandemic among pregnant women in France, Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction (2020), doi:

6 June update – study 149 added

Study 149 – 73 cases, 8 severe, from New Jersey

Of 73 pregnant women with COVID-19, 31 were admitted, of whom 8 visited ICU. Of these 6 needed intubation, and 1 ECMO (click here or 1-s2.0-S2589933320300951-main). 7 of the 8 ICU cases were delivered by Caesarean and one remains undelivered.  All babies were isolated and fed artificial or donor milk. All tested negative. All mothers were discharged from intensive care. No babies died but four remain in hospital. No details given of the non ICU cases. The “network’s two largest hospitals” in which the patients were treated are not named. The authors are affiliated with three large hospitals in New Jersey  Hackensack University Medical Center, University Hospital (Newark, New Jersey) and Hackensack Meridian Jersey Shore University Medical Center. The patients are therefore probably different from those reported in Studies 86, and 111. Citation: Romagano MP, Guerrero K, Spillane N, Kayaalp E, Smilen SW, Alvarez M, Alvarez-Perez J, Francis Kim A, Aschner J, Al-Khan A, Perinatal outcomes in critically ill pregnant women with COVID-19, American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM (2020), doi:

5 June update – studies 143 to 148 added.

Study 148 – 29th May ICNARC report

The 29th May ICNARC update (click here or ICNARC COVID-19 report 2020-05-29.pdf) contains 23 currently, and 34 recently, pregnant women critically ill with Covid-19. Of these 10 and 20 respectively had received advanced respiratory support.

Study 147 – 223 cases from the Netherlands

The 5th June  update of NethOSS (click here), accessed 4 June 2020, contains the following. 6/210 women with brief additional details were admitted to intensive care. One mother died. 66 women have given birth, 25 by Caesarean. 142 pregnancies are ongoing. No baby has died. No babies were infected. Citation: See Studies 42, 46, 120, & 141. Available here. Accessed 5 June 2020.

Study 146 – 8 cases from Turkey

Two pregnant women with Covid-19 were delivered by Caesarean at term, one miscarried at 7 weeks and five pregnancies are ongoing (click here or jum.15367).  One delivered baby tested negative. No details are reported of the other. All mothers recovered. The tertiary hospital is not named, but from author affiliations is probably Sehit Prof Dr Ilhan Varank Sancaktepe Training & Research Hospital, Istanbul. These case are therefore unlikely to overlap with those in Studies 31 and 145. Citation: Yassa M, Birol P, Mutlu AM, Tekin AB, Sandal K, Tug N. Lung Ultrasound Can Influence the Clinical Treatment of Pregnant Women With COVID-19 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 1]. J Ultrasound Med. 2020;10.1002/jum.15367. doi:10.1002/jum.15367

Study 145 – Case report from Turkey

A 25 year old woman with Covid-19 was delivered by Caesarean at 38 weeks (click here or 1-s2.0-S0952818020308953-main). The mother recovered and the baby tested negative. The hospital is not named but from author affiliations is likely Necmettin Erbakan University, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Konya, Turkey. The patient is different from the one in study 31Citation: Resul Yilmaz, FatmaKiliç, Şule Arican, Gülçin Hacibeyoğlu, Halime Süslü, Mustafa Koyuncu, Sema Tuncer Uzun. Anesthetic management for cesarean birth in pregnancy with the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. Available online 27 May 2020.

Study 144 – 2 (or 3) cases from Tokyo

Of 52 asymptomatic pregnant women screened for SARS-CoV-2 between April 6 and April 27, two tested positive and one, whose partner had Covid-19, was treated as if she was infected despite a negative test (click here or ijgo.13252). All three were delivered by Caesarean section, and their babies isolated. No babies were infected. Patients were cared for in Keio University Hospital, Tokyo. These are the first cases of Sars-Cov2 from Japan. Citation: Ochiai, D., Kasuga, Y., Iida, M., Ikenoue, S. and Tanaka, M. (2020), Universal screening for SARS‐CoV‐2 in asymptomatic obstetric patients in Tokyo, Japan. Int J Gynecol Obstet. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/ijgo.13252

Study 143 – 12 cases from Korea

Twelve women with COVID-19 were admitted for delivery between February 26th & to April 3rd 2020 (click here or kja-20204). Four birthed vaginally and 8 by Caesarean. Two babies were stillborn. All patients were cared for at Daegu Fatimal Hospital, Korea, (see Study 22 cited in paper). Although there is no explicit statement about whether the patient in Study 22 was included, the clinical details (age and gestation) differ, so it is likely that all 12  have not previously been reported.  Citation: Jeongmin Oh, Eunju Kim, Hyunkyum Kim, Sang-Ah Lee, Kyeong Hee Lee, Mi Hyae Yu, Jihyun An. Infection control of operating room and anesthesia for cesarean section during pandemic Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak in Daegu, the republic of Korea – 8 cases report. Korean J Anesthesiol DOI: [Epub ahead of print]. Published online June 5, 2020.

4th June update – studies 141 and 142 added

Study 142 – 61 cases from Boston Massachusetts

Of these 61 women with Covid-19 in pregnancy, cared for at a single academic medical centre, 21 were admitted to hospital, of whom 6 went to intensive care, of whom four were intubated (click here or Prevalence_and_Severity_of_Coronavirus_Disease.97338). No mothers died. The hospital is not named, but from author affiliations is likely Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mass. If so, these women probably differ from those reported in Study 129, and have not previously been reported. Citation: Goldfarb, Ilona Telefus MD, MPH; Clapp, Mark A. MD, MPH; Soffer, Marti D. MD, MPH; Shook, Lydia L. MD; Rushfirth, Katherine CNM, MSN; Edlow, Andrea G. MD, MSc; Boatin, Adeline A. MD, MPH; Kaimal, Anjali J. MD, MAS; Barth, William H. Jr MD; Bryant, Allison S. MD, MPH Prevalence and Severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Illness in Symptomatic Pregnant and Postpartum Women Stratified by Hispanic Ethnicity, Obstetrics & Gynecology: June 02, 2020 – Volume Publish Ahead of Print – Issue – doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004005

Study 141 – 201 women from the Netherlands Covid in pregnancy registry

The 22nd May update of NethOSS (click here), accessed 4 June 2020, contains the following. 7/176 women with brief additional details were admitted to intensive care. One mother died after prolonged admission and intubation as a result of pulmonary infection with multiple pulmonary emboli. 49 women have given birth, 16 by Caesarean. 124 pregnancies are ongoing. No baby has died. No babies were infected. Citation: See Studies 42, 46 & 120. Available here. Accessed 4 June 2020.

2nd June update – study 140 added

Study 140 – 42 cases from Barcelona

Forty two pregnant women with Covid-19 between March 13 & April 10 (click here or 1471-0528.16339). Eight required admission to ICU of whom 6 developed some features of pre-eclampsia, 4 requiring Caesarean, one of which was due to HELLP syndrome. No maternal or baby outcomes are reported but it is implied “after recovery from severe pneumonia, hypertensive therapy was no longer required in all cases” that all women recovered. The “tertiary care” hospital is not named but from author affiliations is likely to be Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. If so, these cases have not been previously reported. Citation: Mendoza, M., Garcia‐Ruiz, I., Maiz, N., Rodo, C., Garcia‐Manau, P., Serrano, B., Lopez‐Martinez, R.M., Balcells, J., Fernandez‐Hidalgo, N., Carreras, E. and Suy, A. (2020). Preeclampsia‐like syndrome induced by severe COVID‐19: a prospective observational study. BJOG. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.16339

1st June update – Studies 138 (HT Frederico Amedee Peret) & 139 added. Study 137 removed.

Study 139 – 13 cases in Washington state

Twelve women with Covid-19 were detected through targeted testing, and one by universal screening (click here or ciaa675). No separate clinical details given for the SARS-Cov2 positive women.  Patients were treated at the University of Washington Montlake Labor and Delivery Unit and Northwest Birth Center. They therefore likely overlap with Study 102. Citation: Sylvia M LaCourse, Alisa Kachikis, Michela Blain, LaVone E Simmons, James A Mays, Amber D Pattison, Carol C Salerno, Stephen A McCartney, Nicole M Kretzer, Rebecca Resnick, Rosemary L Shay, Leah M Savitsky, Anna C Curtin, Emily M Huebner, Kimberly K Ma, Shani Delaney, Carlos Delgado, Adrienne Schippers, Jeff Munson, Paul S Pottinger, Seth Cohen, Santiago Neme, Lori Bourassa, Andrew Bryan, Alex Greninger, Keith R Jerome, Alison C Roxby, Erica Lokken, Edith Cheng, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Jane Hitti. Low prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among pregnant and postpartum patients with universal screening in Seattle, Washington. Clinical Infectious Diseases ciaa675,

Study 138 – 36 deaths among 484 pregnant women with Covid-19 in Brazil

Bulletin no 17 from the Brazilian Ministry of Health contains a special section on pregnant women with Covid-19 (click here or 2020-05-25—BEE17—Boletim-do-COE). The report is in Portugese. I’ve prepared an English translation of the pregnancy section using google translate Brazil MoH Covid 19 Bulletin 17 translation of pregnancy section. Citation: Ministério da Saúde, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. Boletim Epidemiológico Especial da COVID-19 no Brasil. Número do boletim 17.  25 May 2020.

31 May update – study 137 added.

Study 137 – A patient with Covid-19 & an ectopic pregnancy

A 37-year-old woman tested positive for SARS-Cov2 and presented two days later with an ectopic pregnancy (click here or Ectopic_Pregnancy_During_Coronavirus_Disease_2019.97340). The authors discuss treatment options but give no further clinical details. Although the report is ambiguous, it is conventional in educational medical reports to present real cases unless stated otherwise. From author affiliations the patient was likely cared for in South Dakota or Texas. Citation: Hansen, Keith A; Stovall, Dale W. Ectopic Pregnancy During Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), Obstet Gynecol: May 27, 2020 doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003995 Removed 1 June 2020 because the peer review correspondence available here or aog_136_2_2020_05_18_hansen_20-1079_sdc1 makes clear that the case is hypothetical.

30 May update – study 136 added.

Study 136 – 158 cases from New York

Of 158 pregnant women with Covid-19, 34 had moderate or severe disease, 9 received ICU or step down care and 1 required intubation. There were no deaths (click here or Andrikopoulou Green Symptoms_and_Critical_Illness_Among_Obstetric.97341). No baby outcomes reported. Patients were cared for at New York Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center, and at
New York-Presbyterian/Allen Hospital. Cases presumably overlap with those in studies 14, 27, 41 & 95. Citation: Andrikopoulou, Maria; Madden, Nigel; Wen, Timothy; Aubey, Janice J; Aziz, Aleha; Baptiste, Caitlin D;  Breslin, Noelle; D’Alton, Mary E; Fuchs, Karin; Goffman Dena; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia; Matseoane-Peterssen, Dara N; Miller, Russell S; Sheen, Jean-Ju; Simpson, Lynn L; Sutton, Desmond; Zork, Noelia; Friedman, Alexander M. Symptoms and Critical Illness Among Obstetric Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Infection, Obstet Gynecol May 27, 2020 – doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003996

28 May update – studies 133 to 135 added

Study 135 –  50 cases from New York

Among 307 asymptomatic women tested on admission in labour, 50 were SARS CoV-2 positive (click here or Buckley Mount Sinai AJOGMFM). The women were tested between April 4 & 15, 2020, at two institutions within Mount Sinai Health System in New York. They therefore probably overlap with those in Study 119. Citation: Buckley A, Bianco A, Stone J, Universal testing of patients and their support persons for COVID-19 when presenting for admission to Labor and Delivery within the Mount Sinai Health System, Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM (2020), doi:

Study 134 – 125 cases from New York

These authors report further details on 12 pregnant women with severe Covid 19, out of 125 in total (click here or McLaren AJOG PIIS0002937820305676). 7 were delivered by Caesarean, 2 vaginally, and 3 remain undelivered. No mothers died, although one remains in hospital. This is an update on study 113, and again the hospital is presumably Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY. Citation: MCLAREN Jr. RA, LONDON V, ATALLAH F, MCCALLA S, HABERMAN S, FISHER N, STEIN JL, MINKOFF HL, Delivery For Respiratory Compromise Among Pregnant Women With COVID-19, Am J Obstet Gynecol (2020), doi:

Study 133 – 3 cases identified by screening in North Tuscany

By screening 533 women admitted for delivery for SARS-CoV2 between March 26th & April 1st in North Tuscany and Liguria, these authors identified 3 positives, who all gave birth without clinical problems (click here or PIIS0002937820305421). The women birthed in all the 6 hospitals of Azienda USL “Toscana Nord Ovest” (Tuscany), and Gaslini Children’s Hospital (Genoa, Liguria). They have therefore probably not previously been reported. Citation: Gagliardi L, Danieli R, Suriano G, Vaccaro A, Tripodi G, Rusconi F, Ramenghi LA, Universal SARS-CoV-2 testing of pregnant women admitted for delivery in two Italian regions. Am J Obstet Gynecol (2020), doi:

27 May update – study 132 added (HT @janevandis)

Study 132 – 42 cases from Connecticut

Of 782 women presenting for childbirth between April 2nd & 29th, 2020, 12 had already been diagnosed with Covid-19. Of the remainder 30/770 screened positive, 22 of whom were asymptomatic (click here orjama_campbell_2020_ld_200052). No clinical outcomes reported. No health care workers infected. Patients were cared for in 3 Yale New Haven Health hospitals in southern Connecticut. Citation: Katherine H. Campbell, Jean M. Tornatore, Kirsten E. Lawrence, Jessica L. Illuzzi, L. Scott Sussman, Heather S. Lipkind, Christian M. Pettker. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Among Patients Admitted for Childbirth in Southern Connecticut. JAMA. Published online May 26, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.8904

26 May update – studies 129 to 131 added.

Study 131 – Anti-SARS-Cov2 IgA antibodies in breast milk of recovering women.

The authors of this not yet peer-reviewed preprint report anti SARS-Cov2 IgA antibodies in breast milk samples from 15 women previously infected with SARS-Cov2 (click here or 2020.05.04.20089995v1.full). No clinical details. The authors, mainly from Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, report that they have recruited over 350 lactating women who have recovered from COVID-19.  Citation: Alisa Fox, Jessica Marino, Fatima Amanat, Florian Krammer, Jennifer Hahn-Holbrook, Susan Zolla-Pazner, Rebecca L Powell.  Evidence of a significant secretory-IgA-dominant SARS-CoV-2 immune response in human milk following recovery from COVID-19 doi:

Study 130 – Case report from Amsterdam Medical Centre

A woman developed Covid-19 at 41 weeks gestation (Click here or ajh.25877). She also developed autoimmune throbocytopaenia. The baby was delivered by Caesarean. Citation: Man Wai Tang, Erfan Nur, Bart J. Biemond. Immune Thrombocytopenia during Pregnancy due to COVID-19. Am J Haematol. First published:23 May 2020

Study 129 – 15 patients from Boston, Massachusetts

Of 213 admitted pregnant women screened by differential white blood count, 15 had Sars-Cov2 (click here or Duffy Green Lymphopenia_and_Severe_Acute_Respiratory_Syndrome.97345 (002)). Three required critical care for hypoxia. No other clinical details. From author affiliations patients were probably cared for in Beth Israel Deaconess Med Center, Harvard Med School, Boston, Mass. Citation: Duffy, Cassandra R. MD, MPH; Hart, Jessica M. MD; Modest, Anna M. PhD; Hacker, Michele R. ScD; Golen, Toni MD; Li, Yunping MD, MSc; Zera, Chloe MD, MPH; Shainker, Scott A. DO, MS; Mehrotra, Preeti MD, MPH; Zash, Rebecca MD; Wylie, Blair J. MD, MPH Lymphopenia and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection Among Hospitalized Obstetric Patients, Obstetrics & Gynecology: May 19, 2020 – Volume Publish Ahead of Print – Issue – doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003984

25 May update – studies 127-8 added.

Study 128 – 13 patients from North East Flanders

Of 470 pregnant women screened, 13 tested positive for SARS-Cov2, 8 were asymptomatic 4 had mild upper airway symptoms, and one respiratory symptoms. None developed severe disease (click here or Ceulemans Flanders uog.22099 (1)) The hospitals caring for the four patients are unnamed but shown on a map. Citation: Ceulemans, D., Thijs, I., Schreurs, A., Vercammen, J., Lannoo, L., Deprest, J., Richter, J., De Catte, L. and Devlieger, R. (2020), Screening for COVID ‐19 at childbirth: does it deliver?. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/uog.22099

Study 127 – SARS-CoV-2 in human breastmilk

Breast milk from two nursing mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 was tested. Samples from one woman were positive (click here or PIIS0140673620311818). Where the patients were cared for, was not reported. The authors came from Ulm in Germany. Citation: Rüdiger Groß, Carina Conzelmann, Janis A Müller, Steffen Stenger, Karin Steinhart, Frank Kirchhoff, Jan Münch. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in human breastmilk. Lancet. Published online May 21, 2020

24 May update

Study 126 – The ISARIC report in the BMJ

Among 20,133 patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 in the UK, 100/1033 (10%) women of childbearing age, were reported as being pregnant (click here or bmj.m1985.full). This is similar to the estimated proportion of pregnant women in the community. Pregnancy was not associated with mortality. This is an update of study 68. Citation: Docherty Annemarie B, Harrison Ewen M, Green Christopher A, Hardwick Hayley E, Pius Riinu, Norman Lisa et al. Features of 20 133 UK patients in hospital with covid-19 using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol: prospective observational cohort study. BMJ 2020; 369 :m1985

23 May update – studies 121-125 added

Study 125 – 60 cases from Madrid

Of 60 pregnant women with COVID-19 (click here or aogs.13921), 18 had pneumonia, 2 severely. One woman was admitted to ICU. No mothers died. Of 23 women delivered, 5 were by cesarean and 18 vaginally. Two delivered preterm. All 23 babies tested negative, and 21 were breast fed. Two babies were admitted to NICU for other reasons. No babies died. The patients were all were treated at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital Madrid, Spain from March 14th to April 14th, 2020. Citation: Pereira, A., Cruz‐Melguizo, S., Adrien, M., Fuentes, L., Marin, E. and Perez‐Medina, T. (2020), Clinical course of Coronavirus Disease‐2019 (COVID‐19) in pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/aogs.13921

Study 124 – 16 cases from Chicago

Fourteen patients delivered at term, 1 at 34 weeks, & 1 at 16-weeks (click here or aqaa089). No mothers admitted to ITU. No mother or baby deaths. No baby infections. The cases were identified  via a search of placental pathology records. Where the women were cared for is not recorded, but from author affiliation and a footnote probably includes Prentice Women’s Hospital, Northwestern Memorial Hospital and Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago. Citation: Elisheva D Shanes, Leena B Mithal, Sebastian Otero, Hooman A Azad, Emily S Miller, Jeffery A Goldstein. Placental Pathology in COVID-19, Am J Clin Pathol. aqaa089, Published: 22 May 2020

Study 123 – 16 cases from Michigan

Two patients received oxygen via nasal cannula, none were admitted to ITU. There were 8 vaginal births (one preterm) and 2 Caesareans. No babies were infected. Six women remain undelivered    (click here or Qadri Michigan Pregnancy affected by SARS CoV 2 infection a flash report…). Citation: Farnoosh Qadri & Federico Mariona (2020) Pregnancy affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection: a flash report from Michigan. J Mat-Fetal & Neonatal Med. DOI: 10.1080/14767058.2020.1765334

Study 122 – Response of Northwell Health to Covid-19 in pregnancy

A detailed description of how a large multi-hospital network in the centre of the New York pandemic organised itself to care for women with Covid-19 in pregnancy (click here or Rochelson [16193997 – Journal of Perinatal Medicine] New York). No patient numbers or details. Citation: Burton Rochelson, Michael Nimaroff, Adriann Combs, Benjamin Schwartz, Natalie Meirowitz, Nidhi Vohra, Victor R. Klein, Orlando Santandreu, Mitchell Kramer, Navid Mootabar, Eli Serur, Lisa Spiryda, Scott Berlin. Frank Chervenak. The Care of Pregnant Women During the COVID-19 Pandemic – Response of a Large Health System in Metropolitan New York. J Perinat Med. 2020 May 20;/j/jpme.ahead-of-print/jpm-2020-0175/jpm-2020-0175.xml. doi: 10.1515/jpm-2020-0175. Online ahead of print.

Study 121 – One week’s screening in Los Angeles.

The Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California screened 82 pregnant women over a one week period (click here or Severe_Acute_Respiratory_Syndrome_Coronavirus_2.97344). None of the 80 asymptomatic women tested positive but one of two symptomatic ones did. No further details reported. Citation: Mariam Naqvi, Richard M Burwick, John A Ozimek, Naomi H Greene, Sarah J Kilpatrick, Melissa S Wong. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Universal Testing Experience on a Los Angeles Labor and Delivery Unit, Obstetrics & Gynecology: May 19, 2020 – Volume Publish Ahead of Print – Issue – doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003987

21 May update – studies 116-120 added.

Study 120 – 191 women from the Netherlands Covid-19 registry

This 14 May update of NethOSS (click here), accessed 21 May 2020, contains the following. 6/156 women with brief additional details were admitted to intensive care; one remains there. One mother had a molar pregnancy and one a miscarriage. 47 women have given birth, 16 by Caesarean. 109 pregnancies are ongoing. No mother or baby has died. No babies were infected. Citation: See Studies 42 and 46. Available here. Accessed 21 May. Note: we probably missed some intermediate updates from this registry.

Study 119 – 24 cases identified by screening in New York

24/155 asymptomatic women screened for SARS-COV-2 prior to a planned delivery, tested positive (click here or Bianco Green Testing_of_Patients_and_Support_Persons_for.97342). All their newborns were tested and none were positive. No maternal outcomes were reported. The patients were all cared for in the Mount Sinai Health system between April 4th and 15th. From author affiliations this was Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital. These cases may therefore overlap with some in study 86. Citation: Bianco, Angela; Buckley, Ayisha B; Overbey, Jessica; Smilen, Scott; Wagner, Brian; Dinglas, Cheryl; Loudon, Holly; Garely, Alan; Brodman, Michael; Stone, Joanne. Testing of Patients and Support Persons for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Infection Before Scheduled Deliveries, Obstetrics & Gynecology: May 19, 2020 – Volume Publish Ahead of Print – Issue – doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003985

Study 118 – a maternal death from New York

A 36-year-old woman developed Covid-19 at 37 weeks gestation (click here or Vallejo Green A_Postpartum_Death_Due_to_Coronavirus_Disease_2019.97350). Within three hours of admission she required intubation and Caesarean, and she died within 36 hours. The baby tested negative and survived. The hospital is not named, and she was not transferred. From the author affiliations it was either Dept OBGYN, Urban Health Plan, Inc., Bronx, or Division of Maternal-Fetal Med, Dept OBGYN, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York. Citation: Victoria Vallejo, John G. Ilagan. A Postpartum Death Due to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States. Obstet Gynecol 2020;00:1–4 DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003950

Study 117 – 77 cases from 12 Italian hospitals

From Feb 23 to March 28th, 14/77 women with Covid-19 were severely affected, and one required ECMO (click here or Savasi Green Clinical_Findings_and_Disease_Severity_in.97347). 57 gave birth, 22 by Caesarean. Four newborns tested positive for SARS-COV-2, but none had symptoms. 20 pregnancies are ongoing. No mothers or babies died. The 12 hospitals L. Sacco (Milan), Mangiagalli (Milan), S. Gerardo MBBM Foundation (Monza), Papa Giovanni XXIII (Bergamo), and San Matteo (Pavia) and the hospitals of Padua, Florence, Lecco, Trento, Modena, Seriate and Piacenza. These are the same hospitals as studies 33 & 64. The patients probably overlap. Citation: Savasi, Valeria M. MD, PhD; Parisi, Francesca MD, PhD; Patanè, Luisa MD; Ferrazzi, Enrico MD; Frigerio, Luigi MD, PhD; Pellegrino, Antonio MD; Spinillo, Arsenio MD; Tateo, Saverio MD; Ottoboni, Mariacristina MD; Veronese, Paola MD, PhD; Petraglia, Felice MD; Vergani, Patrizia MD; Facchinetti, Fabio MD; Spazzini, Donata MD; Cetin, Irene MD, PhD Clinical Findings and Disease Severity in Hospitalized Pregnant Women With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), Obstetrics & Gynecology: May 19, 2020 – Volume Publish Ahead of Print – Issue – doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003979

Study 116 – A “universal testing in pregnancy” series from Chicago

Northwestern Memorial Hospital, tested a consecutive series of 635 pregnant women admitted between April 8th & 28th, 2020. Of these 23 (3.6%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, of whom 10 (44%) were asymptomatic on presentation (click here or Miller NorthWestern Clinical_Implications_of_Universal_Severe_Acute.9734…). No maternal or baby outcomes were reported. Citation: Miller, Emily S. MD, MPH; Grobman, William A. MD, MBA; Sakowicz, Allie MS; Rosati, Jessica MSN, RN; Peaceman, Alan M. MD Clinical Implications of Universal Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Testing in Pregnancy, Obstetrics & Gynecology: May 19, 2020 – Volume Publish Ahead of Print – Issue – doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003983

20 May update Studies 113 (HT Fred Peret. We’d missed it!) to 115 added

Study 115 – Case report of Covid-19 & severe pre-eclampsia

A 26-year-old with Covid-19 at 37 weeks gestation also had severe pre-eclampsia (click here or AJOGMFM-20-1073 ). She was treated with magnesium sulphate and delivered vaginally. The baby tested negative. Both recovered. From author affiliations likely cared for at Stanford University Hospital. Citation: Joudi N, Henkel A, Lock WS, Lyell D, Preeclampsia Treatment in SARSCoV-2, American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM (2020), doi:

Study 114 – 22 women from Bergamo, Italy

Of 22 women with Covid-19 in pregnancy two neonates tested positive, one born vaginally and one by caesarean. Both did well. Their placental histology is described (click here or AJOGMF-20-1112). No other mother or baby details are given. The women were cared for between March 5, & April 21, 2020 at Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo, in the Lombardy region of Italy, so the women were probably also reported in study 32 & study 64. Citation: Patanè L, Morotti D, Giunta MR, Sigismondi C, Piccoli MG, Frigerio L, Mangili G, Arosio M, Cornolti G, Vertical transmission of COVID-19: SARS-CoV-2 RNA on the fetal side of the placenta in pregnancies with COVID-19 positive mothers and neonates at birth, American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM (2020), doi:

Study 113 – 68 SARS-Cov-2 positive pregnant women  from New York

46 had Covid-19 and a further 22 asymptomatic women tested positive for SARS-Cov-2 (click here or s-0040-1712164). 12 women had severe disease, one requiring ventilation. There was one intrauterine death at 17 weeks but otherwise no mothers or babies died. All babies tested negative. 12 pregnancies are ongoing.  Women were cared for at a tertiary care hospital in Brooklyn, from March 15 to April 15, 2020. From author affiliations probably Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY. If so, they have not been previously reported.  Citation: Viktoriya London, Rodney McLaren Jr., Fouad Atallah, Catherine Cepeda, Sandra McCalla, Nelli Fisher, Janet L. Stein, Shoshana Haberman, Howard Minkoff. The Relationship between Status at Presentation and Outcomes among Pregnant Women with COVID-19. Am J Perinatol. DOI ISSN 0735-1631. Online April 27, 2020

19 May update – studies 108 to 112 added.

Study 112 – Case report from Nashville, Tennessee

A 35-year-old developed Covid-19 at 22 weeks gestation requiring intubation & ventilation (click here or  1-s2.0-S2214911220300515-main). She recovered and the pregnancy is ongoing. U Tennessee Health Science Center has not previously reported cases. Citation: J. Anderson, J. Schauer, S. Bryant, et al., The use of convalescent plasma therapy and remdesivir in the successful management of a critically ill obstetric patient with novel coronavirus 2019 infection: A case report. Case Rep Women’s Health (2020),

Study 111 – Case report from Livingstone, New Jersey

A 39-year-old woman, with IVF twins developed Covid-19 at 27 weeks of gestation (click here or 1-s2.0-S2214911220300503-main). She required ventilation and then an emergency classical Cesarean section a the bedside due to rapid deterioration.  She recovered. One twin was infected, but both survived. She was cared for in Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, New Jersey, which has not previously reported a case.  Citation:  H. Mehta, S. Ivanovic, A. Cronin, et al., Novel coronavirus related acute respiratory distress syndrome in a patient with twin pregnancy: A case report. Case Rep Women’s Health (2020),

Study 110 – Case report from Thailand

A 43-year-old with mild Covid-19 at 18 weeks gestation (click here or Panichaya Thailand PIIS0301211520303134). Amniocentesis done a week earlier showed trisomy 21, & the pregnancy was terminated. Placental & fetal swabs were negative. Citation: Panichaya P, Thaweerat W, Uthaisan J. Prolonged viral persistence in COVID-19 second trimester pregnant patient, Eur J Obstet & Gynecology & Reprod Biol (2020), doi:

Study 109 – 4 women from Parma, Italy

Four women with Covid-19 recovered and later delivered healthy term neonates (click here or Acta BioMed Parma 9743-Article Text-49126-2-10-20200514). They were cared for in Parma Hospital, in the Emilia-Romagna (not Lombardy) region of Italy. Citation: Serafina Perrone, Michela Deolmi, Maurizio Giordano, Tiziana D’Alvano, Lucia Gambini, Mara Corradi, Tiziana Frusca, Tullio Ghi, Susanna Esposito. Report of a series of healthy term newborns from convalescent mothers with COVID-19. Acta Biomed 2020; Vol. 91, N. 2: 251-255 DOI: 10.23750/abm.v91i2.9743

Study 108 – 27 cases from Central Hospital of Wuhan

These 27 women with Covid-19 in pregnancy included 4 early pregnancies. They delivered 24 babies (1 set of twins) (click here or Yang Wuhan arpa.2020-0232-sa). They were cared for at “Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan” between Jan 20 & Mar 19, 2020.  Assuming this is Central Hospital of Wuhan, grid.440160.7 these cases likely overlap with studies 39 and 73. They are probably also included in studies 55 & 57. Citation: Hui Yang, Bin Hu, Sudong Zhan, Li-ye Yang, Guoping Xiong. Effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on pregnant women and their infants: A retrospective study in Wuhan, China. Arch Pathol Lab Med. In press. doi: 10.5858/arpa.2020-0232-SA

18 May update – studies 105 to 107 added

Study 107 – Maternal death in Birmingham, UK

A 29-year-old woman with severe Covid-19 was delivered by Caesarean section at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital at 31 weeks gestation (click here or Mat Death Bham BrJH bjh.16849). The baby tested negative and is doing well. The mother initially improved and was extubated on day 2 post natal. However on day 6 she developed basilar artery thrombosis, and she died on day 7. Case presumably included in study 92 UKOSS. Citation: Ahmed, I., Azhar, A., Eltaweel, N. and Tan, B.K. (2020), First Covid‐19 maternal mortality in the UK associated with thrombotic complications. Br J Haematol. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/bjh.16849

Study 106 – 2 cases from Reading, UK

Two women with severe Covid-19 were treated at the Royal Berkshire Hospital (click here or Cooke Reading PIIS0301211520302761 (002). Both were preterm (28+4, 28+6 days) and required Caesarean for deteriorating maternal condition. Both mothers recovered. One baby had a perforated bowel but both eventually recovered. Presumably both cases were included in study 92 UKOSS. Citation: Cooke WR, Billett A, Gleeson S, Jacques A, Place K, Siddall J, Walden A, Soulsby K. SARS-CoV-2 infection in very preterm pregnancy: experiences from two cases, Eur J Obstet Gynecol & Reprod Biol (2020), doi:

Study 105 – 12 cases from from Hospital Pedro Hispano, Portugal

All 123 pregnant women admitted to Hospital Pedro Hispano in Porto between March 25 & April 15 were tested for SARS-CoV-2. 12 were positive, of whom 11 were asymptomatic, 10 have delivered, 6 by
cesarean section and 4 vaginally. There was one set of twins. There were no maternal complications and all the newborns tested negative (click here or Doria N Portugal PIIS0301211520303122 (002) This series may include the cases in study 74 & study 94. Citation: D´oria M, Peixinho C, Laranjo M, Varejao AM, Silva PT. Covid-19 during pregnancy: a case series from an universally tested population from the north of Portugal. Eur J Obstet Gynecol & Reprod Biol (2020). doi:

16 May update – Study 104 added

Study 104 – ICNARC 15th May update

The 15th May ICNARC update (click here or ICNARC COVID-19 report 2020-05-15.pdf) contains 23 currently, and 32 recently, pregnant women critically ill with Covid-19. Of these 9 and 16 respectively had received advanced respiratory support.

Study 103 – Case report from Toronto, Ontario

A 40-year-old woman developed Covid-19 at 35 weeks gestation and was delivered by Caesarean (click here or cmaj.200821.full). The baby tested positive on the day of birth, breast fed and had some minor feeding difficulties, but eventually thrived. Citation: Maksim Kirtsman, Yenge Diambomba, Susan M. Poutanen, Ann K. Malinowski, Evangelia Vlachodimitropoulou, W. Tony Parks, Laura Erdman, Shaun K. Morris, Prakesh S. Shah. Probable congenital SARS-CoV-2 infection in a neonate born to a woman with active SARS-CoV-2 infection  CMAJ 2020. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.200821; early-released May 14, 2020 (HT Jon Dorling & Don Sharkey).

Study 102 – 46 patients from Washington State, USA

Of 46 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2, 43 were symptomatic, 7 hospitalized, 6 categorised as severe, and 1 admitted to ICU (click here or Lokken-AJOG). Eight women delivered, 5 vaginal, 3 Caesarean. All mothers survived. There were 7 livebirths & one stillbirth at 38 weeks. That fetus tested negative.  One baby was preterm. No further baby details were given. 38 pregnancies are ongoing. The women were cared for in 16 hospitals: University of Washington Hospital system (Montlake, Northwest, & Harborview campuses), Swedish Medical Center (First Hill, Ballard, Issaquah and Edmonds campuses), University of Washington Valley Medical Center, MultiCare Health System (Auburn Medical Center, Covington Medical Center, Tacoma General Hospital, Good Samaritan Hospital, Valley Hospital and Deaconess Hospital), Evergreen Health Medical Center, and PeaceHealth-St. Joseph’s Medical Center. Citation: Erica M. LOKKEN et al. Clinical Characteristics of 46 Pregnant Women with a SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Washington State. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020 May 19 doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2020.05.031 [Epub ahead of print] PMCID: PMC7234933 PMID: 32439389

Study 101 – Case report from Tabriz, Iran

A 33-year-old woman with severe Covid-19 at 34 weeks gestation was treated at Imam Reza hospital of Tabriz (click here or Taghizadieh Iran 1-s2.0-S2213007120302306-main). She required intubation, ventilation, renal dialysis & delivery by Caesarean. The baby tested negative & was in good health. The mother remains intubated but is recovering. The clinical details differ sufficiently from the two women who survived in study 67 to make it likely that this is a previously unreported case. Citation: Taghizadieh A, Mikaeili H, Ahmadi M, Valizadeh H, Acute kidney injury in pregnant women following SARS-CoV-2 infection: A case report from Iran, Respiratory Medicine Case Reports (2020), doi:

May 15 update – study 100 added

Study 100 – Case report at 26 weeks (& 5 other cases) from Belgium

A woman was diagnosed with Covid-19 six days after giving birth at 26 weeks by Caesarean because of pre-eclampsia & HELLP syndrome at Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, in Brussels, Belgium, (click here or Lancet Piersigilli PIIS2352464220301401). The baby tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 but but otherwise behaved as expected for her gestational age. Subsequently five further women with Covid-19 delivered in the same hopsital. All babies were negative. Only one required NICU for unrelated reasons.  Citation: Fiammetta Piersigilli, Katherine Carkeek, Catheline Hocq, Bénédicte van Grambezen, Corinne Hubinont, Olga Chatzis, Dimitri Van der Linden, Olivier Danhaive COVID-19 in a 26-week preterm neonate. Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2020 Published Online May 7, 2020

May 14th update – studies 97-99 added

Study 99 – Placental pathology of 20 cases from Weill Cornell Medical Center

Of 20 women with Covid-19, five delivered by Caesarean and 15 vaginally (click here or Baergen Ped Pathol 1093526620925569). Three gave birth preterm and there was one set of twins. No baby outcomes are reported. These may overlap with other New York cases. Citation: Baergen, R. N., & Heller, D. S. (2020). Placental Pathology in Covid-19 Positive Mothers: Preliminary Findings. Pediatric and Developmental Pathology, 23(3), 177–180.

Study 98 – Ulcerative Colitis & COVID-19 in pregancy

A 26-year-old woman with known ulcerative colitis developed Covid-19 very early in pregnancy (fetal heartbeat & yolk sac on scan). She did not require admission to ITU or ventilation, and recovered, but the pregnancy miscarried (click here or UC and COVID pregnancy IBD izaa109 (1). She was treated at NY Langone so may also be included in studies 85 & 86. Citation: Melissa H Rosen, MD, Jordan Axelrad, MD, MPH, David Hudesman, MD, David T Rubin, MD, Shannon Chang, MD, Management of Acute Severe Ulcerative Colitis in a Pregnant Woman With COVID-19 Infection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, , izaa109,

Study 97 – Case report from Strasbourg

A 21 year old with severe Covid-19 at 23 weeks gestation (click here or Case rep Strasbourg PIIS0301211520302736) was admitted to ICU, treated with noninvasive ventilation and positional therapy and recovered. The pregnancy is ongoing. Citation: Vibert F, Kretz M, Thuet V, Barthel F, De Marcillac F, Deruelle P, Lecointre L, Prone positioning and high-flow oxygen improved respiratory function in a 25-week pregnant woman with COVID-19. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology (2020). doi:

May 13th update – studies 95 & 96 added (HT Shakila Thangaratinam).

Study 96 – another report of 5 cases from NY Presbyterian, Cornell

The same 5 cases as study 95 (click here). Citation: J. Justin Mulveya, Cynthia M.Magro, Lucy X Ma, Gerard J Nuovo, Rebecca N Baergen. Analysis of complement deposition and viral RNA in placentas of COVID-19 patients. Annals of Diagnostic Pathology Volume 46, June 2020,

Study 95 – placental pathology of the first 5 cases from NY Presbyterian, Cornell

Five patients with Covid-19, one delivered by Caesarean, & four vaginally (click here). All resulted in healthy, term deliveries, but no further baby details reported. All mothers recovered. Discussion, “at the time of writing these patients represent 100% of the confirmed COVID-19 deliveries at New York Presbyterian Hospital, Cornell Campus“. A different hospital from NY Presbyterian Allen (studies 27 & 41). Citation: Justin Mulveya, Cynthia M.Magro, Lucy X Ma, Gerard J Nuovo, Rebecca N Baergen. A mechanistic analysis placental intravascular thrombus formation in COVID-19 patients. Annals of Diagnostic Pathology Volume 46, June 2020,

May 12 Update – studies 93 & 94 added

Study 94 – Case report from Portugal

A 31-year-old woman with Covid-19 at 38 weeks had a vaginal birth in a level 3 hospital in Porto (click here or PIIS030121152030258X). The baby was isolated and not infected. Not the same case as study 74 because delivered vaginally. Citation: Polonia-Valente R, Moucho M, Tavares M, Vilan A, Montenegro N, Rodrigues T. Vaginal delivery in a woman infected with SARS-CoV-2 – the first case reported in Portugal. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology & Reproductive Biology (2020), doi:

Study 93 – 9 cases from North Middlesex Hospital, London

Out of 9 hospital cases, 1 was preterm, 1 had a vaginal birth, and 1 baby was infected (click here or Govind EJOG London PIIS0301211520302578). Presumably all 9 included in study 92. Citation: A. Govind, et al., Re: Novel Coronavirus COVID-19 in late pregnancy: Outcomes of first nine cases in an inner city London hospital, Eur J Obstet Gynecol (2020),

May 11th update. Keelin’s found study 91’s figures. And study 92, the first report from UKOSS, added.

Study 92 – UKOSS

The first report (May 11th 2020) from the UK Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS) Covid-19 registry of 427 pregnant women admitted to hospital with confirmed Sars-CoV-2 from all 194 UK obstetric units (click here). Twice the size of all previous studies combined. No overlaps. Too important to summarise. Read it. Citation: Marian Knight, Kathryn Bunch, Nicola Vousden, Eddie Morris, Nigel Simpson, Chris Gale, Patrick O’Brien, Maria Quigley, Peter Brocklehurst, Jennifer J Kurinczuk. Characteristics and outcomes of pregnant women hospitalised with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in the UK: a national cohort study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS) in press.

9 June update. Published in BMJ online (click here or bmj.m2107.full for published version).

May 10th update – Studies 88 to 91 added.

Study 91 – Alleged visualisation of the SARS-Cov-2 virus invading the placenta

Case report of a woman, aged 40, with severe Covid-19 requiring ventilation, and later delivery at 28 weeks gestion by Caesarean section (click here or ALGARROBA). The mother recovered and was discharged on day 10. The baby tested negative. The paper is missing its figures, but there’s a video clip (click here). Update 11th May (click here for the figures). Author affiliations suggest she was cared for at NYU Langone Health, Winthrop Hospital. Citation: Gabriela N. ALGARROBA,, Patricia REKAWEK, Sevan A. VAHANIAN, Poonam KHULLAR, Thomas PALAIA, Morgan R. PELTIER, Martin R. CHAVEZ, Anthony M. VINTZILEOS. Visualization of SARS-CoV-2 virus invading the human placenta using electron microscopy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. in press. 

Study 90 – ICNARC 8th May update

The 8th May update (click here or ICNARC COVID-19 report 2020-05-08.pdf) contains 21 currently, and 30 recently, pregnant women critically ill with Covid-19. Of these 9 and 16 respectively had received advanced respiratory support. Excluded from running totals.

Study 89 – Case report from San Fancisco

A 34-year-old woman developed Covid-19 at at 28 weeks of gestation (click here or Acute_Respiratory_Distress_Syndrome_in_a_Preterm.97348). Her deteriorating condition necessitated delivery by Caesarean section. She required 10 days mechanical ventilation. Neonatal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM were negative. Citation: Blauvelt CA, Chiu C, Donovan AL, Prahl M, Shimotake TK, George RB, Schwartz BS, Farooqi NA, Ali SS, Cassidy A, Gonzalez JM, Gaw SL. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in a Preterm Pregnant Patient With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Obstet Gynecol. 2020 May 8. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003949. [Epub ahead of print]

Study 88 – 13 pregnant women with Covid-19 in intensive care in Sweden

Of 53 women aged 20-45 years with SARS-CoV-2 reported to the Swedish Intensive Care Registry, 13 were either pregnant or <1 week postpartum (click here or ). Citation: Collin J, Byström E, Carnahan A, Ahrne M. Pregnant and postpartum women with SARS-CoV-2 infection in intensive care in Sweden. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2020 May 9. doi: 10.1111/aogs.13901. [Epub ahead of print]

May 9th update – Study 87 added

Study 87 – Case report from Detroit

A 36-year-old developed severe Covid-19 at 23 weeks gestion, and required 7 days ventilation (click here or 1-s2.0-S2214911220300473-main DETROIT). She survived, and the pregnancy is ongoing. She was treated at the Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit. Citation: L. Hong, N. Smith, M. Keerthy, et al., Severe COVID-19 infection in pregnancy requiring intubation without preterm delivery: A case report. Case Reports in Women’s Health (2020),

May 8th update – studies 84-86 added

Study 86 – 64 pregnant women with severe Covid-19 in 12 US hospitals

Of 64 pregnant women with severe (n=44) or critical (n=20) Covid-19, one had a cardiac arrest, 19 were intubated, none had ECMO, and 13 remain hospitalized, but none have died (click here or COVID_CC_post_review_04302020). Of the 32 who have given birth 24 were delivered by Caesarean. One baby was infected, but no babies died. The women had been admitted to 12 unnamed hospitals between March 5 & April 20. From the author affiliations the hospitals probably include Pennsylvania, Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia; Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania; St. Luke’s University Health Network, Bethlehem; Crozer Chester Medical Center, Chester; Einstein Healthcare Network, Philadelphia. New York Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx; New York University Langone Medical Center; Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai; New Jersey Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick; Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston; Ohio TriHealth-Good Samaritan Hospital, Cincinnati. Citation: Rebecca A.M. Pierce-Williams, Julia Burd, Laura Felder, Rasha Khoury, Peter S. Bernstein, Karina Avila, Christina A. Penfield, Ashley S. Roman, Chelsea A. DeBolt, Joanne L. Stone, Angela Bianco, Adina R. Kern-Goldberger, Adi Hirshberg, Sindhu K. Srinivas,, Jenani S. Jayakumaran, Justin S. Brandt, Hannah Anastasio, Meredith Birsner, Devon S. O’Brien, Harish M. Sedev, Cara D. Dolin, William T. Schnettler, Anju Suhag, Shabani Ahluwalia, Reshama S. Navathe, Adeeb Khalifeh, Kathryn Anderson, Vincenzo Berghella. Clinical course of severe and critical COVID-19 in hospitalized pregnancies: a US cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. In press.

Study 85 – 32 women from New York University, Langone Health

Between March 1 & April 20, 32 women with Covid-19 gave birth at NYU Langone Health. Eleven had placental or membrane swabs tested of which 3 were positive. Of the 11 women 3 women with critical, and one with severe disease, were delivered by caesarean. All the rest, one severe disease, the remainder mild, gave birth vaginally. None of the infants tested positive or demonstrated symptoms of COVID-19 infection. Citation: Christina A. Penfield, Sara G. Brubaker, Meghana A. Limaye, Jennifer Lighter, Adam J. Ratner Kristen M. Thomas, Jessica Meyer, Ashley S. Roman. Detection of SARS-COV-2 in Placental and Fetal Membrane Samples. Am J Obstet Gynecol. In press.

Study 84 – Twins from St Thomas’s, London.

A woman with twins developed Covid-19 at 32 weeks (click here or Twins abruption STH london AJOGMFM-20-1053).  She was delivered by Caesarean section due to suspected abruption. Both babies tested negative for COVID-19. Citation: Katy Kuhrt, Jess McMicking, Surabhi Nanda, Catherine Nelson Piercy, Andrew Shennan. Placental abruption in a twin pregnancy at 32 weeks’ gestation complicated by COVID-19, without vertical transmission to the babies. Am J Obstet Gynecol in press.

May 7th update – studies 82 & 83 added. Study 81 comment revised; this is probably the same ECMO case as previously reported in studies 3 and 57.

Study 83 – 82 women in New York

Of 82 pregnant women with Covid-19, admitted to seven hospitals within an unnamed large hospital group in New York State, eight (9.8%) were admitted to intensive care (click here or L20-081), a similar proportion to non-pregnant women of reproductive age. No clinical outcomes are reported. Study 49 by the same group, reporting Covid-19 admissions in an unnamed 14 hospital group, is cited. Although not explicitly stated, it seems likely that the cases overlap. Citation: Matthew J. Blitz, Amos Grünebaum, Asma Tekbali, Eran Bornstein, Burton Rochelson, Michael Nimaroff, Frank A. Chervenak. Intensive Care Unit Admissions for Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women with COVID-19. Am J Obstet Gynecol in press. 

Study 82 – 9 screen-positive women at The Portland, London.

Between March 27 & April 20th, The Portland, a private hospital in London, performed planned Caesareans for 129 NHS patients.  All were screened for SARS-CoV2, and 9 (7%) were positive, of whom only one was symptomatic (click here or SARS-CoV-2_and_pregnancy_letter_line_nbrs).  None of the positive asymptomatic women developed COVID-19 symptoms. The outcome of the symptomatic woman was not reported. All babies were well at birth and at discharge. Citation: Asma KHALIL, Robert HILL, Shamez LADHANI, Katherine PATTISSON, Pat O’BRIEN. SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy: symptomatic pregnant women are only the tip of the iceberg. Am J Obstet Gynecol. in press.

May 6th update – study 79 (HT Shakila Thangaratinam) & studies 80 & 81 added.

Study 81 – Case report from Xiaolan People’s Hospital of Zhongshan

A 31 year old woman developed Covid-19 at 35 weeks gestation (click here, or ijgo.13189). The mother’s condition deteriorated rapidly, requiring ventilation, and later ECMO. The baby was delivered by emergency caesarean but died within two hours. The mother survived. This is the second pregnant woman requiring ECMO reported from China. Zhongshan People’s Hospital disambiguates as grid.476868.3 and no patients from Zhongshan have previously been reported, not in Study 3, nor in studies 55 or 57. This case is therefore likely original. Citation: Li J, Wang Y, Zeng Y, Song T, Pan X, Jia M, He F, Hou L, Li B, He S, Chen D. Critically ill pregnant patient with COVID-19 and neonatal death within two hours of birth. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2020 May 5. doi: 10.1002/ijgo.13189.

Revised comment 7 May. The city of Zhongshan is in the province of Guangdong. Study 3, which initially mentioned “patient 6”, a 31 year old woman at 34 weeks on ECMO, whose baby had died, included one patient from Guangdong. Study 57 described a 32-year-old woman at 35 weeks from Zhongshan, Guangdong whose baby had died soon after birth. At the time of the report that woman had been weaned off ECMO but remained an inpatient. Despite the minor inconsistencies in maternal and gestational ages, it is likely that all three reports refer to the same woman. If so there has only been one pregnant woman with Covid-19, treated with ECMO, and reported from China. She survived.

Study 80 – 13 women from Renmin Hospital, Wuhan,

These 13 women were cared for in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (click here for abstract. Full text not yet available). Citation: Wu Y, Liu C, Dong L, Zhang C, Chen Y, Liu J, Zhang C, Duan C, Zhang H, Mol BW, Dennis CL, Yin T, Yang J, Huang H. Coronavirus disease 2019 among pregnant Chinese women: Case series data on the safety of vaginal birth and breastfeeding. BJOG. 2020 May 5. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.16276. [Epub ahead of print]

Study 79 – Case report from Turin

A 28-year-old woman with Covid-19 gave birth vaginally at 37 weeks (click here or PIIS0301211520302025). The baby tested positive but was otherwise well. The baby was born at Sant’Anna Hospital, Turin, Italy. Turin is outside Lombardy; this case was not included in studies 32 and 64. Citation: A. Carosso, et al., Pre-labor anorectal swab for SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 pregnant patients: is it time to think about it? Eur J Obstet Gynecol (2020),

May 5th update – study 78 added

Study 78 – Case report from Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli

A 23 weeks pregnant woman with Covid-19 admitted on 10th March to Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli (click here or PIIS0002937820304683). Obstetric ultrasound revealed a normally grown fetus with normal amniotic fluid and Doppler parameters. No further pregnancy details. Likely to be one of the women with ongoing pregnancy in study 76Citation: Inchingolo R, Smargiassi A, Moro F, Buonsenso D, Salvi S, Del Giacomo P, Scoppettuolo G, Demi L, Soldati G, Testa AC, The Diagnosis of Pneumonia in a Pregnant Woman with COVID-19 Using Maternal Lung Ultrasound. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2020), doi:

May 4th update – Studies 76 & 77added

Study 77 – ICNARC 1st May update

The 1st May update (click here or ICNARC COVID-19 report 2020-05-01) contains 20 currently, and 27 recently, pregnant women critically ill with Covid-19. Of these 7 and 14 respectively had received advanced respiratory support. Excluded from running totals.

Study 76 – 7 cases from Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli  Rome, Italy

Of seven pregnant women with Covid-19, one miscarried at 7 weeks, 4 pregnancies are ongoing, and 2 were delivered, both by Caessarean (click here or  buonsenso Rome AJP s-0040-1710541). Both babies had many swabs tested but were well. Citation: Danilo Buonsenso, Simonetta Costa, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Paola Cattani, Brunella Posteraro, Simona Marchetti, Brigida Carducci, Antonio Lanzone, Enrica Tamburrini, Giovanni Vento, Piero Valentini. Neonatal Late Onset Infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2. Am J Perinatol

May 2nd update – Studies 73 to 75 added

Study 75 – 10 vaginal births in Zhongnan Hospital

Among 88 pregnant women with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 admitted to the obstetric isolation ward of Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University between January 20 and March 2, ten delivered vaginally (click here or LIAO ijgo.13188). All 7 tested neonates were negative. Three babies were not tested. These ten cases don’t overlap with those in studies 1, 13 & 56, who had all delivered by Caesarean, but probably overlap with studies 55 and 57. Not added to running totals. Citation: Jing Liao, Xiaoyan He, Qing Gong, Lingyun Yang, Chunhua Zhou, Jiafu Li. Analysis of vaginal delivery outcomes among pregnant women in Wuhan, China during the COVID‐19 pandemic. First published: 29 April 2020

Study 74 – Case report from Portugal

A healthy woman with “occasional dry cough” tested positive at term and was delivered by Caesarean (click here or Lyra Portugal case13883-54440-1-PB. The baby was uninfected and both did well. Citation: Joana LYRA, Rita VALENTE, Marta ROSÁRIO, Mariana GUIMARÃES. Acta Med Port 2020 xxx;33(AOP):xxx-xxx ▪

Study 73 – 28 women from The Central Hospital of Wuhan

Among pregnant women cared for in the Central Hospital of Wuhan between 15 January to 15 March 2020. (click here or Quancheng IJID 1-s2.0-S1201971220302800-main) there were 17 Caesareans, 5 vaginal births, 4 medical abortions and 2 ongoing pregnancies. Total 30 [sic]. They include one set of twins. No babies were infected, and no mothers or babies died. The authors admit that these data are included in Study 55. They are probably also included in study 57, & overlap with Study 39.  Not added to running totals. Citation: Qiancheng X, Jian S, Lingling P, Lei H, Xiaogan J, Weihua L, Gang Y, Shirong L, Zhen W, GuoPing X, Lei Z, The sixth batch of Anhui medical team aiding Wuhan for COVID-19, Coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy, International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2020), doi:

May 1st update – Study 72 added

Study 72- Miscarriage in Switzerland

A 28-year-old with Covid-19 miscarried at 19 weeks gestation at Lausanne University Hospital (click here or second trimester miss jama_baud_2020_ld_200040 ). Placental swabs were positive for SARS-CoV-2. The mother’s outcome was not reported. Citation: David Baud, Gilbert Greub, Guillaume Favre, Carole Gengler, Katia Jaton, Estelle Dubruc, Léo Pomar. Second-Trimester Miscarriage in a Pregnant Woman With SARS-CoV-2 Infection. JAMA. Published online April 30, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.7233

30th April update – Studies 68 to 71 added

Study 71 – Follow-up of 4 women from Study 6

Patients 12-15 in Study 6 from Tongji were still in hospital at the time of the report. This (click here or YANG L_Tongji_AJR) describes follow-up till March 30th. All four had been discharged and were still pregnant. Citation: Lin LiDehan Liu, Lian Yang. Follow-Up Information About the Four Pregnant Patients With Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pneumonia Who Were Still in the Hospital at the End of Our Study American Journal of Roentgenology: W1-W2. 10.2214/AJR.20.23247

Study 70 – Maternal death from Iran

A 22-year-old developed Covid-19 at 32 (or possibly 30) weeks gestation, and was treated at Imam Khomeini Hospital of Mazandaran University, Sari, Iran (click here or ZAMANIYAN M_Iran_Prenatal diagnosis). She was delivered by Caesarean section, but on day 10 required ventilation, and died on day 15. The first baby swabs were negative, but amniotic fluid and later baby swabs were positive. Apart from developing a fever the baby did well. The clinical details suggest that she was not included in Study 67. Citation: Marzieh Zamaniyan, Aghdas Ebadi, Samaneh Aghajanpoor Mir, Zahra Rahmani, Mohammadreza Haghshenas, Setareh Azizi. Preterm delivery in pregnant woman with critical COVID‐19 pneumonia and vertical transmission. Prenatal diagnosis. First published:17 April 2020

Study 69 – Case report from Missouri

A patient with Covid-19 at 33 weeks gestation required intubation and ventilation for 11 days (click here or Kelly false negative SARSCOV2 AJOGMFM). The baby was delivered by Caesarean. The mother has been extubated, and is recovering. The baby tested negative and is well. From author affiliations the patient was probably cared for in Barnes Jewish Hospital in St Louis. Citation: Jeannie C Kelly, Michael Dombrowksi, Micaela O’neil-Callahan, Annessa S Kernberg, Antonina I Frolova, Molly J Stout.  False-Negative COVID-19 Testing: Considerations in Obstetrical Care. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM Available online 28 April 2020,

Study 68 – 55 pregnant women in the UK ISARIC report

This preprint from the  International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infections Consortium (ISARIC) (click here or ISARIC UK 2020.04.23.20076042v1.full) includes 16,749 hospitalised UK patients with COVID-19. This represents 14.7% of people who have tested positive for COVID-19 in the UK, most of whom have not required hospital admission, and 28% of admissions with COVID-19. 55/963 (6%) of the women of reproductive age were pregnant. This is similar to the estimated proportion of pregnant women in the community. Pregnancy was not associated with mortality. Citation: Annemarie B Docherty, Ewen M Harrison, Christopher A Green, Hayley E Hardwick, Riinu Pius, Lisa Norman, Karl A Holden, Jonathan M Read, Frank Dondelinger, Gail Carson, Laura Merson, James Lee, Daniel Plotkin, Louise Sigfrid, Sophie Halpin, Clare Jackson, Carrol Gamble, Peter W Horby, Jonathan S Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jake Dunning, Peter JM Openshaw, J Kenneth Baillie, Malcolm Gracie Semple. Features of 16,749 hospitalised UK patients with COVID-19 using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol. medRxiv 2020.04.23.20076042; doi:

29th April update.

Study 67 – 7/9 maternal deaths with severe disease in Iran

This preprint from Am J Obstet Gynecol (click here or Aagaard_W20-2021) reports 9 pregnant women with severe Covid-19 treated between mid-February & mid-March 2020 in Iran. The hospitals, exact ages and exact dates of admission and death were concealed to protect anonymity. Seven mothers died, one recovered and one remains seriously ill.  Of the babies 6 died (incl one set of twins) and 5 survived (incl one set of twins). These cases may overlap with those in studies 23 & 43. Citation: Sedigheh Hantoushzadeh, Alireza A. Shamshirsaz, Ashraf Aleyasin, Maxim D Seferovic, Soudabeh Kazemi Aski, Sara E. Arian, Parichehr Pooransari, Fahimeh Ghotbizadeh, Soroush Aalipour, ,Zahra Soleimani, Mahsa Naemi, Behnaz Molaei, Roghaye Ahangari, Mohammadreza Salehi, Atousa Dabiri Oskoei, Parisa Pirozan, Roya Faraji Darkhaneh, Mahboobeh Gharib Laki, Ali Karimi Farani, Shahla Atrak, Mir Mohammad Miri, Mehran Kouchek,  Seyedpouzhia Shojaei, Fahimeh Hadavand, Fatemeh Keikha, Maryam Sadat Hosseini, Sedigheh Borna, Shideh Ariana, Mamak Shariat, Alireza Fatemi, Behnaz Nouri, Seyed Mojtaba Nekooghadam, Kjersti Aagaard. Maternal Death Due to COVID-19 Disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol. In press.

28 April update – Studies 64-66 added

Study 66 – A review from Brazil of 9 maternal deaths due to Covid-19

This preprint from AJOG refers to nine maternal deaths (click here or Maternal deaths AJOG L20-082. Two from Iran had been reported in Study 23 below. Of the five from Brazil, two post-partum deaths in women delivered by Caesarean section, are referenced to the Brazilian Ministry of Health. No further details are given. The other three are sourced to Brazilian newspapers. The first link provided (click here) goes to the newspaper Folha de Londrina, but not to the report of the maternal death. The 2nd link (click here) describes the death of Viviane Albuquerque, age 33 from Pernambuco, at 32 weeks gestation (added here). The third link (click here) is broken. The final two deaths occurred in Mexico. The first is attributed to the Mexican Ministry of Health. The second to a newspaper report. The link provided (click here) goes to a report of two maternal deaths from Covid-19. Added to the news reports here.  Not added to the running totals. Citation:  Amorim MMR, Takemoto MLS, Fonseca EB. Maternal Deaths with Covid19: a different outcome from mid to low resource countries? Am J Obstet Gynnecol. In press. 

Study 65 – 5 patients with severe disease from Philadelphia

This preprint from AJOG (click here or Hirshberg AJOG L20-083) describes five women in Phaladelphia, who required ventilation. Three were delivered by Caesarean, and two remain undelivered. No mothers or babies died, but one woman remains severely ill. Citation: Adi HIRSHBERG,, Adina R. KERN-GOLDBERGER, Lisa D. LEVINE,, Rebecca PIERCE-WILLIAMS, William R. SHORT, Samuel PARRY, Vincenzo BERGHELLA, Jourdan E. TRIEBWASSER, Sindhu K. SRINIVAS. Care of critically ill pregnant patients with COVID-19: a case series. Am J Obstet Gynecol. In press. 

Study 64 – 42 cases from Lombardy

This pre-print in BJOG (click here or 1471-0528.16278) describes the 42 cases in study 32 in much more detail. They were cared for in 6 hub hospitals: Milan-Mangiagalli and Sacco, Bergamo Pope Giovanni XXIII; Brescia-Civil Hospital; Monza-S. Gerardo Hospital/MBBM Foundation; Pavia-San Matteo, and 6 spoke hospital Milan-Melloni and S. Giuseppe; Seriate-Bolognini; Treviglio-Civil
Hospital, The Maternity Hospital of Padua and the Maternity Hospital of Modena. Citation: Enrico Ferrazzi, Luigi Frigerio, Valeria Savasi, Patrizia Vergani, Federico Prefumo, Santa Barresi, Stefano Bianchi, Elena Ciriello, Fabio Facchinetti, Maria Teresa Gervasi, Enrico Iurlaro, Alessandra Kustermann, Giovanna Mangili, Fabio Mosca, Luisa Patanè, Donata Spazzini, Arsenio Spinillo, Giuseppe Trojano, Michele Vignali, Antonella Villa, GianVincenzo Zuccott,i Fabio Parazzini, Irene Cetin. Vaginal delivery in SARS‐CoV‐2 infected pregnant women in Northern Italy: a retrospective analysis. BJOG 27 April 2020

27 April update – Studies 58-63 added

Study 63. ICNARC 24 April update

The 24 April update (click here or ICNARC COVID-19 report 2020-04-24) contains 20 currently, and 25 recently, pregnant women critically ill with Covid-19. Of these 5 and 7 respectively had received advanced respiratory support. Excluded from running totals.

Study 62. Case report from Hefei city

A 22 year old woman with asymptomatic COVID-19 was delivered by Caesarean on Feb 11, 2020 at the No 2 People’s Hospital of Hefei City (click here). The baby tested negative and both did well. Although this hospital does not appear on this is the first report from Hefei City, which is 373 km from Wuhan. Citation: Lu D, Sang L, Du S, Li T, Chang Y, Yang XA. Asymptomatic COVID-19 infection in late pregnancy indicated no vertical transmission. J Med Virol. 2020 Apr 24. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25927. [Epub ahead of print]

Study 61. 32 Covid-19 screen positive women from New York Winthrop Hospital

Out of 161 pregnant women admitted in labour to New York University Winthrop Hospital between March 30 & April 12, and screened for Covid-19, 32 were positive, of whom 11 were symptomatic (click here or AJOG_Screening_all_pregnant_women vintzileos). Of 29 neonates tested all were negative with three results pending. No clinical outcomes reported. Citation: William S VINTZILEOS, Jolene MUSCAT, Eva HOFFMANN, Duc VO, Nicole S JOHN, Rosanne VERTICHIO, Anthony M VINTZILEOS, Screening all pregnant women admitted to Labor and Delivery for the virus responsible for 2 COVID-19 American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. in press. 

Study 60. Preterm labour in a patient with Covid-19

A woman from South Carolina developed Covid-19 at 23 weeks, was treated for suspected preterm labour at 24 weeks, and recovered. The pregnancy is ongoing at 27 weeks (click here or Browne Aj Peri preterm labour). Citation: Paul C. Browne, Jennifer B. Linfert, Emilio Perez-Jorge. Successful Treatment of Preterm Labor in Association with Acute COVID-19 Infection. Am J Perinatol. Published Online 24 April 2020. DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1709993

Study 59. Two patients with Covid-19 & negative amniocentesis

Two women from Tongji Hospital, Wuhan developed Covid-19 in the first trimester and underwent amniocentesis in the second (click here or Yu SARS COV2 in AF Lancet Infect Dis 20). Both specimens were negative. Both cases may overlap with those in Studies 55 and 57. Not added to running totals. Citation: Nan Yu, Wei Li, Qingling Kang, Wanjiang Zeng, Ling Feng, Jianli Wu. No SARS-CoV-2 detected in amniotic fluid in mid-pregnancy. Lancet Infect Dis 2020 Published Online April 22, 2020

Study 58. First case report from India

An asymptomatic woman at 38+6 weeks gestation tested positive for COVID-19 (click here or Sharma India ijgo.13179). She delivered by Caesarean section, and her breast-fed baby tested negative on day 7. Both recovered. Citation: K. Aparna Sharma, Rajesh Kumari, Garima Kachhawa, Anjolie Chhabra, Ramesh Agarwal, Akash Sharma, Neerja Bhatla. Management of the first patient with confirmed COVID‐19 in pregnancy in India: From guidelines to frontlines. Int J Gynecol Obstet. In press. doi:10.1002/ijgo.13179 

25 April update – Studies 56 & 57 added.

Study 57. 116 cases from 25 hospitals in China

This preprint from Am J Obstet Gynecol (click here) includes 116 mothers with Covid-19 (65 lab confirmed, 51 clinically diagnosed), of whom 8 had severe disease. None died. 99 mothers had delivered 100 babies (one set of twins) of whom one died. This paper claims to be an “an expanded series that have included 33 published cases.16,18-20”. Their reference 16 is our Study 1, ref 18 is our Study 38 and ref 19 is our Study 6a.  Their reference 20 is as follows:  “Lei D, Wang C, Li C, et al. Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in pregnancy: analysis of nine cases. Chin J Perinat Med 2020,23:doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn113903-20200216-00117.” Although cited in a number of reviews we have so far been unable to find the original source.

The patients were collected from 25 hospitals within and outside Hubei province, between January 20 and March 24, 2020. Three recruiting hospitals, all from Wuhan, listed in the supplementary material, overlap with those in study 55 (appendix table s1). These are Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan univerisity, the Central Hospital of Wuhan, and Tongi Hospital, all multiple reporters of Covid-19 in pregnancy. Thus it is likely that, in addition to the studies cited, this series overlaps considerably with Study 55. Not added to running totals. The patient requiring ECMO came from Zhongshan, Guangdong. She is probably the same woman reported as treated with ECMO from the city in Study 3. She survived. Citation: Yan J, Guo J, Fan C, Juan J, Yu X, Li J, Feng L, Li C, Chen H, Qiao Y, Lei D, Wang C, Xiong G, Xiao F, He W, Pang Q, Hu X, Wang S, Chen D, Zhang Y, Poon LC, Yang H, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnant women: A report based on 116 cases, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2020), doi:

Study 56. Seven mothers and babies from Zhongnan Hospital

All mothers had Covid-19 and were delivered by Caesarean. No mothers or babies died (click here). 6/7 babies had a range of swabs taken, all of which were negative. Due to probability of duplication with Studies 1 and 55, not included in running totals. Citation. Pu Yang, Xia Wang, Pin Liu, Cong Wei, Bingyan He, Junwen Zheng, Dongchi Zhao. Clinical characteristics and risk assessment of newborns born to mothers with COVID-19 Journal of Clinical Virology Volume 127, June 2020, 104356. 

22 April update – studies 53-55 added.

Study 55. 118 cases with Covid-19 from Wuhan collected by the National Health Commission of China

This regional series, published in New Engl J Med, of women treated between December 8, 2019, & March 20, 2020, was extracted by the National Health Commission of China, which stores the medical records of all 50 designated hospitals in Wuhan city (click here). Nineteen of the 50 hospitals had reported cases (Appendix table S1, click here). No mothers died, and apart from 3 spontaneous abortions, 2 ectopic pregnancies, & 4 induced abortions, no babies died. At the next running total update we will replace all other cases from hospitals in Wuhan with these data. Citation: Lian Chen, Qin Li, Danni Zheng, Hai Jiang, Yuan Wei, Li Zou, Ling Feng, Guoping Xiong, Guoqiang Sun, Haibo Wang, Yangyu Zhao, Jie Qiao, Clinical Characteristics of Pregnant Women with Covid-19 in Wuhan, China. New Engl J Med. April 17, 2020 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2009226

Study 54. Six confirmed, & two suspected cases from the Maternal & Child Health Hospital, Wuhan

The eight patients from the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province, Wuhan, between January 23 and February 10, 2020 (click here) probably overlap with other reports from the same hospital. They are not included in the running totals. Citation: Wu, C., Yang, W., Wu, X. et al. Clinical Manifestation and Laboratory Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Pregnant Women. Virol. Sin. (2020).

Study 53. Case report from Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain

A 44-year-old woman developed Covid-19 at 29+2 weeks gestation (click here or 1-s2.0-S0014256520301120-main (002)). She was treated at Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno Infantil, and required mechanical ventilation and delivery by caesarean. Both mother and baby recovered. [Spanish. Google translate] Citation: González Romero D, Ocampo Pérez J, González Bautista L, Santana-Cabrera L. Pronóstico perinatal y de la paciente embarazada con infección por COVID-19. Revista Clínica Española Available online 17 April 2020,

20 April update Studies 48 – 52 added

Study 52. ICNARC update 17 April

This update of the UK Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre (ICNARC) database (click here or ICNARC COVID-19 report 2020-04-17.pdf (1) mentions 16 currently, and 21 recently, pregnant women with Covid-19 who are or had been critically ill. Three & six respectively had received advanced respiratory support. Excluded from running totals.

Study 51. Case report from the British American Hospital, Lima, Peru

A 41 year old women with severe Covid-19 requiring ventilation was delivered by caesarean section at 33 weeks gestation (click here or Alzamora Am J Perintal Apr 18 . The baby was isolated but a nasopharyngeal swab taken at 16 hours was positive for SARS-COV-2. The baby was ventilated for 12 hours, and later, at age 6 days, developed mild respiratory symptoms. The mother’s serology is reported on day 4, but otherwise the maternal outcome is not reported. It is presumed that she recovered. Citation: Maria Claudia Alzamora, Tania Paredes, David Caceres, Camille M. Webb, Luis M. Valdez, Mauricio La Rosa. Severe COVID-19 during Pregnancy and Possible Vertical Transmission. Am J Perinatal. Online April 18. DOI 

Study 50. A severe case of Covid-19 from the Good Samaritan Hospital. Cincinnati, Ohio

A 39 year old woman presented at 31 weeks gestation with severe Covid-19. She required ventilation. After 8 days on ITU she was delivered by Caesarean section for fetal bradycardia. The baby was intubated on NICU for three days, and isolated for 14. Amniotic fluid and nasopharyngeal swabs were negative. The mother remains on synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation. The clinical details and patient age indicate that this is not patient no. 42 (click here) reported in the Ohio newspapers. Citation: Schnettler WT, Al Ahwel Y, Suhag A, Severe ARDS in COVID-19-infected pregnancy: obstetric and intensive care considerations American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM (2020), doi:

Study 49. 62 pregnant women from a 14 hospital group in New York State

Over four weeks to March 29th, 62 out of 3064 pregnant women attending an unnamed 14 hospital group in New York State tested positive for SARS-COV2 (click here).  No further details given, & since they may overlap with other New York Cases, not included in running totals. Citiation: Tekbali A, Grünebaum A, Saraya A, McCullough L, Bornstein E, Chervenak FA. Pregnant versus non-pregnant SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 Hospital Admissions: The first 4 weeks in New York, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2020), doi:

Study 48. One case from Toronto & one from Clamart, France.

Two cases (click here or COVID coagulopathy Canada jth.14856)  One delivered in Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada, and one in Antoine Béclère hospital in Clamart, France. Citation: Evangelia Vlachodimitropoulou Koumoutsea, Alexandre J. Vivanti, Nadine Shehata, Alexandra Benachi, Agnes Le Gouez, Celine Desconclois, Wendy Whittle, John Snelgrove, Kinga Ann Malinowski. COVID19 and acute coagulopathy in pregnancy. J Thrombosis Haemostasis. 17 April 2020.

19 April update Study 47 added.

Study 47. Report of 13 pregnant women in ITU from Santé Publique France 

Thirteen pregnant women have been admitted to intensive care in France (click here or COVID19_PE_20200418 Report in French). None have died. Not included in running totals. Citation: COVID-19: epidemiological update of April 16, 2020 Santé Publique France.

18 April update. Study 46 (16 April update of NethOSS) added, & study 42 (prev NethOSS data) removed from running totals

Study 46. 107 women from the Netherlands Covid-19 registry

This 16 April update of NethOSS (click here), accessed 18 April 2020, contains the following. 5/91 women with brief additional details were admitted to intensive care. 25 have given birth, eight by Caesarean. No mother or baby has died. Citation: See Study 42. Available here. Accessed 18 April. 

16 April update. Studies 44 & 45 added. HT @Belinda_J_Lowe for study 45. We’ve also done some housekeeping today. Study 13 probably overlaps with study 1, so S13 has been removed from running totals. Study 3 includes 13 patients from multiple centres, both in and outside Hubei province, who may overlap with other studies. 12 mothers (3 undelivered) and 9 babies therefore removed from the running total. Only S3, case 6, woman on ECMO & baby stillborn & preterm, does not appear to have been reported elsewhere, so remains in the running totals.

Study 45. Case report from Bond University, Australia

Mother age 31, with mild Covid-19 confirmed by testing at 40w+0d (click here or full text preprint here). Spontaneous labour at 40w+3d. Ventouse birth. Baby breast fed. Covid-91 neg swab at 24 hours. Mother and baby well. This case report from Bond University Hospital, Southport, Queensland, is the first from Australia. Citation: Lowe B, Bopp B. COVID‐19 vaginal delivery – a case report. ANZOG 15 April 2020.

Study 44.  42 suspected & 13 confirmed cases from Tongji Hospital

Thirteen pregnant women all seen at Tongji Hospital grid.412793.a between Jan 20 & Mar 5, 2020 (click here). Four delivered vaginally and nine by Caesarean. All mothers had mild disease and none died. The baby details for the Covid and non-Covid mothers are reported together. These cases probably overlap with previous reports from Tongji hospital so not included in running totals. Citation: Hui yang, Guoqiang Sun, Fei Tang, Min Peng, Ying Gao, Jing Peng, Hui Xie, Yun Zhao, Zhichun Jin, Clinical Features and Outcomes of Pregnant Women Suspected of Coronavirus Disease 2019, Journal of Infection (2020), doi: 

14 April update Studies 41 – 43 added.

Study 43. A maternal death from Covid-19 in Iran

25 June update. This paper has been withdrawn because the case, as we had suspected, had also been included in Study 67. Study 67 had been submitted first, albeit to another journal, so the authors judged that it had priority. Details on Retraction Watch (click here)

A 27 year old woman was transferred to Vali-e-asr Hospital at 30 weeks gestation (click here or Karami Travel med Apr 11 2020) with severe respiratory failure. She required intubation and ventilation. A few hours later she delivered a stillborn baby vaginally, and a few hours after that she died. Post-mortem on the mother confirmed SARS-Cov-2 in the lungs. No further details are given about the baby.  Vali-e-asr Hospital does not appear on but is part of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences. grid.469309.1. This is the first academic report (as opposed to unconfirmed news reports) of a maternal death due to Covid-19.  Citation: Parisa Karami, Maliheh Naghavib, Abdolamir Feyzib, Mehdi Aghamohammadic, Mohammad Sadegh Novinc, Ahmadreza Mobaiend, Mohamad Qorbanisania, Aida Karamia, Amir Hossein Norooznezhad. Mortality of a pregnant patient diagnosed with COVID-19: A case report with clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, in press.

Study 42. 89 women from the Netherlands Covid-19 registry

This is the first Covid-19 in pregnancy registry report of which we are aware. It has not been formally published, but is available here and regularly updated.  Using Google translate, the 9 April version, accessed 14 April 2020 contains the following. 5/89 pregnant women with Covid-19 have been admitted to intensive care. 19 women have given birth, four by Caesarean. No mother or baby has died. Updated by study 46 & removed from running totals. Citation: The Nederlandse Vereniging voor Obstetrie en Gynaecologie (Dutch Association for Obstetrics and Gynecology) (NVOG). Registratie COVID-19 positieve zwangeren in NethOSS (Update registration COVID-19 positive pregnant women in NethOSS). Available Accessed 14 April. 

Study 41. 33 women from NY Presbyterian & Columbia

These 33 women with Covid-19 delivered infants at the New York–Presbyterian Allen Hospital and Columbia University Irving Medical Center between March 22 & April 4, 2020 (click here). They presumably include the 18 women with Covid-19 previously reported as having delivered in the same two hospitals (Studies 14 & 27), as well as some of the women who were at the time undelivered in those two series. Since no birth details are given, these cases have not been included in running totals. Citation: Sutton, D, Fuchs, K, D’Alton M, Goffman D. Universal Screening for SARS-CoV-2 in Women Admitted for Delivery. New Engl J Med April 13, 2020. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2009316

13 April update Studies 39 and 40 added.

Study 40. 17 pregnant women from Renmin

These 17 women with Covid-19, all delivered by Caesarean section in Remnin hospital (click here or Khan Clin Micro Infect 27 Mar), almost certainly are the same women as in studies 6a & 12. They have not been added to the running totals. Citation: Khan S, Jun L, Nawsherwan Siddique R, Li Y, Han G, Xue M, Nabi G, Liu J, Association of COVID-19 infection with pregnancy outcomes in healthcare workers and general women, Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 

Study 39. 23 pregnant women from the Central Hospital Wuhan

23 pregnant women with COVID-19 from the Central Hospital of Wuhan. Wu ijgo.13165 Three patients terminated the pregnancy in the first trimester. Of the other 20, 18 delivered by Caesarean and two vaginally. There was one set of twins. No neonates were infected. This is the first report from this hospital which has a unique GRID reference. We have therefore added these to the running totals. Citation: Xiaoqing Wu, Ruihong Sun, Jianpu Chen, Yuanliang Xie, Shutong Zhang, Xiang Wang. Radiological findings and clinical characteristics of pregnant women with
COVID-19 pneumonia In J Gynecol Obstet. In press doi: 10.1002/ijgo.13165 

11 April update Studies 34 – 38 added.

Study 38. 41 women from the Maternal & Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province

Out of 41 pregnant women from the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province, with typical Covid-19 infection on lung CT, 16 were SARS-CoV-2 positive, 17 negative and 8 not tested. Nineteen were inpatients for delivery, and the rest outpatients from 22 weeks onwards. No birth details were given and in view of the probability of overlap with other cases in the same hospital none have been added to the running totals. Citation: H. Liu, F. Liu and J. Li et al., Clinical and CT imaging features of the COVID-19 pneumonia: Focus on pregnant women and children, Journal of Infection,

Study 37. Three vaginal births in Renmin

Three babies were born vaginally to women with Covid-19, one preterm, two term. None were infected. Khan 3 vaginal births renmin. All previous reports from Renmin (Studies 6a, 10, 12 & 36) were of Caesarean births, so these have been included as non-duplicates in the summary totals. Citation: Suliman Khan, Liangyu Peng, Rabeea Siddique, Ghulam Nabi, Nawsherwan, Mengzhou Xue, Jianbo Liu, Guang Han. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology as part of the Cambridge Coronavirus Collection. March 2020. DOI: 10.1017/ice.2020.84

Study 36. Caesarean birth in 17 women in Remnin

This case series includes details of the Caesarean births of 17 women with Covid-18 in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University Chen 17 renmin cs. All mothers and babies survived. However the series probably includes the 16 cases also reported from Remnin in Chinese (study 6a), which included the same number, three, preterm patients, all also delivered by Caesarean. They may also overlap with study 10; both studies mention two doctors delivered by Caesarean in Renmin. The obstetrican on study 36, Bi-heng Cheng, is shared with study 6a. We have therefore not included these cases in the running total. Citation: Rong Chen, Yuan Zhang, Lei Huang, Bi-heng Cheng, Zhong-yuan Xia, Qing-tao Meng, Safety and efficacy of different anesthetic regimens for parturients with COVID-19 undergoing Cesarean delivery: a case series of 17 patients. Can J Anesth

Study 35. Four neonates with Covid-19 from China

Four infected neonates (age less than 1 month) all born by Caesarean section (click here). They were identified by searching China’s national database of 81,026 laboratory-confirmed cases up to March 13 using the same methods as in a study of infants age 1 month to one year reported in JAMA (click here but not listed in this blog post). It seems likely that they overlap with the three infected neonates reported earlier in JAMA (study 12), the case report in Clinical Infectious Diseases (study 11) or the infected neonate reported in Lancet Inf Dis (study 15). We have therefore not included them in the running totals. Citation: Zhi-Jiang Zhang, Xue-Jie Yu, Tao Fu, Yu Liu, Yan Jiang, Bing Xiang Yang, Yongyi Bi. Novel Coronavirus Infection in Newborn Babies Under 28 Days in China. European Respiratory Journal 2020; DOI: 10.1183/13993003.00697-2020

Study 34. Case report of uninfected baby from Beijing

Abstract (click here). Full text (here). A 25 year old woman with Covid-19 at 35 weeks recovered and had a normal vaginal birth of a 3070g boy at 38w + 4d. The baby had no signs of past or present infection with SARS-COV-2. The birth occurred at YouAn Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, which has not previously reported cases in pregnancy, but the mother had been transferred from an unnamed hospital in Wuhan. Nevertheless we have included this as a non-duplicated case in summary totals. Citation: Xiali Xiong, Hong Wei, Zhihong Zhang, Jing Chang, Xiaopeng Ma, Xiang Gao, Qiang Chen, Qiumei Pang. Vaginal Delivery Report of a Healthy Neonate Born to a Convalescent Mother with COVID-19 J Med Virol. 2020 Apr 10. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25857. 

10th April update Study 33 added

Study 33. US Centres for Disease Control reports 143 pregnant women

Preliminary data on lab-confirmed COVID-19 reported to CDC Feb 12–March 28, 2020. Of 7,162 cases, 143 were pregnant. Of these 72 stayed home, 31 hospitalised (non ICU), 4 entered ICU, and  36 had unknown hospitalisation status. “[…] for […] pregnancy, few severe outcomes were reported […].” Many probably reported elsewhere, so not added to running totals. Citation: Preliminary Estimates of the Prevalence of Selected Underlying Health Conditions Among Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 — United States, February 12–March 28, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69:382–386. DOI: icon.

9 April update. Study 31 & 32 added. Keelin O’Donoghue & Kate Walker have joined the team. Thank you also to Nicola Vousden for alerting us to 31.

Study 32. 42 women from Lombardy

This pre-print Ferrazzi Lombardy ijgo.13162 cites a paper in press describing 42 pregnant women from Lombardy, Italy who had Covid-19 and delivered, 18 by Caesarean, and 24 vaginally. Two were spontaneously preterm. Seven women required CPAP or were admitted to ICU, but all “eventually did well”. No baby details are given. This is the first scientific report from Italy. Citation: Ferrazzi EM, Frigerio L, Cetin I, Vergani P, Spinillo A, Prefumo F, Pellegrini E, Gargantini G.COVID-19 Obstetrics Task Force, Lombardy, Italy: executive management summary and short report of outcome. Int J Gynecol Obstet in press. 

Study 31. Case report from Ankara, Turkey

Report from Dept OBGYN, Ankara University, Faculty of Medicine. Woman age 32, with Covid-19 at 35 weeks gestation, delivered by Caesarean section prior to admission to intensive care (click here). Birthweight 2790g. Three days after birth mother required intubation and ventilation, and she remains in intensive care. Baby not infected.  Citation: E. Kalafat E. Yaprak G. Cinar B. Varli S. Ozisik C. Uzun A. Azap A. Koc Lung ultrasound and computed tomographic findings in pregnant woman with COVID‐19 Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. First published: 06 April 2020

8 April update. Study 30 added. Thank you to Nicola Vousden (click here) for alerting me to this one. From tomorrow, will raise its Covid-19 in pregnancy game. Two colleagues, Keelin O’Donoghue from Cork and Kate Walker from Nottingham, will join in searching and classifying, we will improve and publish our search strategy, and register this project on PROSPERO. Stand by for details.

Study 30. 16 women with Covid-19 pneumonia from Hubei province

Sixteen pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia, and 18 with pneumonia on chest imaging who tested negative, were compared with two groups of control pregnancies (click here or ciaa352). The comparative design is similar to study 6a which, apart from an English abstract, has only been published in Chinese. However the hospital and authors differ, so I’m confident there is no overlap. Citation: Li N, Han L, Peng M, Lv Y, Ouyang Y, Liu K, Yue L, Li Q, Sun G, Chen L, Yang L. Maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia: a case-control study. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 30. pii: ciaa352. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa352. [Epub ahead of print]

7 April update Studies 27-29 added. HT Keelin O’Donogue @Keelinodonoghue & Penny Wilson @nomadicgp

Study 29. ICNARC report 4 April 2020

This report ICNARC COVID-19 report 2020-04-04.pdf  or click here, from the UK Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre (ICNARC) mentions two currently, and six recently (<6 weeks) pregnant women with Covid-19 who were also critically ill. One of the currently pregnant, and two of the recently pregnant women, were receiving advanced respiratory support. Excluded from running totals.

Study 28. Seven cases from Newark Beth Israel Medical Center. Newark, NJ

Pre-print from Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 1-s2.0-S2589933320300434-main, or click here, of two pregnant women with Covid-19 who developed cardiomyopathy. Report also mentions five other pregnant women with Covid-19 in Newark Beth Israel Medical Center.  Details are only given for the two women with cardiomyopathy, and no baby details are given. For consistency of numbers I’ve assumed the other five pregnancies are ongoing in running totals. Citation: Alexander Juusela, Munir Nazir Martin Gimovsky. Two Cases of COVID-19 Related Cardiomyopathy in Pregnancy. AJOG MFM Available online 3 April 2020,

Study 27. Expanded series from New York Presbyterian

This pre-print reports 43 pregnant women with COVID-19. It includes 36 new cases, identified during a period of universal testing, and 7 previously reported (Study 14) 43_COVID_040320. Click here. Citation: Breslin N, Baptiste C, Gyamfi-Bannerman C, et al. Coronavirus disease 2019 infection among asymptomatic and symptomatic pregnant women: two weeks of confirmed presentations to an affiliated pair of New York City hospitals. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM. 2020;2(2):100118. doi:10.1016/j.ajogmf.2020.100118

6 April update. No new scientific reports today. But obstetricians & midwives will enjoy reading the first newspaper report of a Covid-19 pregnancy and birth in France. Case 10 here. Better written and more detailed than many scientific reports.

5 April update. Study 26 added. The first report of puerperal Covid-19. Not added to running totals.

Study 26. The first case report of puerperal COVID-19

This baby developed COVID-19 symptoms at age 10 days and was admitted to Wuhan Children’s Hospital age 17 days on February 5, 2020.  Click here for the article in Chinese. What follows is based on Google translate. Both parents are reported to have had Covid-19 symptoms from three days before admission, i. e. day 14 after birth. This is therefore not a case of COVID infection in pregnancy or at birth, and therefore excluded from the running totals. However, the mother had puerperal Covid-19 and is, I believe, the first such case reported. The baby recovered and by implication, albeit not stated explicitly, so did the parents. The first author Zeng Lingkong shares a name with the first author of the series of 33 neonatal cases reported in JAMA Paediatrics, Study 8., but this is clearly not one of the three infected babies reported in that paper. Citation: Zeng Lingkong, Tao Xuwei, Yuan Wenhao, et al. The first neonatal coronavirus pneumonia in China [J]. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics, 2020,58 (04): 279-280. DOI: 10.3760 / cma.j.cn112140 -20200212-00081

4 April update Study 25 added belatedly.

Study 25. Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019, 16-24 February 2020

Click here or who-china-joint-mission-on-covid-19-final-report for full text including annexes. (For Chinese version click here or who-china-joint-mission-on-covid-19-final-report chinese version. Annexe 6, page 32 of English version: “As opposed to Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, pregnant women do not appear to be at higher risk of severe disease. In an investigation of 147 pregnant women (64 confirmed, 82 suspected and 1 asymptomatic), 8% had severe disease and 1% were critical.” Neither raw numbers, a citation, nor any further details are given. Assuming the percentages are of all 147, this would imply 12 women with severe disease, and one or two who were critical. In view of the high possibility of double counting – cases notified to the WHO team are likely to have also got reported elsewhere – I’ve left these out of the running total. Citation: Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) 16-24 February 2020. Report submitted 28 February 2020

3 April update Studies 23 & 24 added. Study 23 is judged unreliable for reasons given below, and study 24 included no pregnancies. Neither have been included in the running totals.

Study 24. No SARS-COV-2 in vaginas of non-pregnant women with severe Covid-19

Although not a study of pregnancy, this report of ten women with confirmed severe COVID-19 pneumonia in Tongji Zhongfa Hospital, Wuhan, China (click here or ciaa375) is reassuring for vaginal birth. None were positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR assay in vaginal fluid. Citation: Lin Qiu, Xia Liu, Meng Xiao, Jing Xie, Wei Cao, Zhengyin Liu, Abraham Morse, Yuhua Xie, Taisheng Li, Lan Zhu. SARS-CoV-2 is not detectable in the vaginal fluid of women with severe COVID-19 infection. Clinical Infectious Diseases, ciaa375,

Study 23. Three cases from Iran

This review (click here, full text here) from researchers in both Tehran and Shiraz, includes a report of the births of three infants from infected mothers, apparently not previously reported. The authors’ source was this Iranian ministry website (click here). All three babies were uninfected and survived, but two of the three mothers developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after delivery and died; presumably related to their Covid-19 infection. Citation: Mojgan Karimi-Zarchia, Hossein Neamatzadeh, Seyed Alireza Dastgheib, Hajar Abbasi, Seyed Reza Mirjalili, Thena Behforouz, Farzad Ferdosian, Reza Bahrami. Vertical Transmission of Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) from Infected Pregnant Mothers to Neonates: A Review. Fetal & Paed Pathol. 

Comment by Jim. Although these cases are reported in a scientific journal, the source is a website. The authors do not claim to have treated either the women nor the babies. The women are said to have delivered in Mazandaran and Zanjan provinces. None of the authors give these provinces as their address.  A google translation of the link provided reveals a report of a single case of a woman with COVID-19 who delivered at 36 weeks in Babol. Mother and baby doing well. Again none of the article authors came from Babol. It seems likely that the source of these three cases is the website alone. We have therefore excluded them from our running totals.

2 April update Thank you to Keelin O’Donoghue, Cork, for pointing me to Studies 18 & 19, which I had missed, and to Ganesh Acharya, Editor-in-Chief AOGS, for permission to upload a pre-publication version of Study 20.

Study 22. Case report from Korea

Delivered by Caesarean section at 37 weeks at Daegu Fatimal Hospital, Korea (click here). The baby was not infected. Mother and baby did well. Citation: Dong Hwan Lee, Jihyang Lee, Eunju Kim, Kyeongyoon Woo, Hak Youle Park, Jihyun An.  Emergency cesarean section on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2) confirmed patient. Korean J Anesthesiol.    [Epub ahead of print]

Study 21. Case report from Washington DC

The patient had a normal vaginal delivery at 39 weeks at MedStar Washington Hospital Center (click here). Baby not infected. Both fine. Citation: Iqbal SN Rachael Overcash R, Neggin Mokhtari N,.
Haleema Saeed H, Gold S, Auguste T, Mirza M-U, Ruiz M-E, Chahine JJ, Waga M, Wortmann G. An Uncomplicated Delivery in a Patient with Covid-19 in the United States New Engl J Med April 1, 2020 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2007605

Study 20. Case report of twins from Stockholm

Twins born by Caesarean at 36 weeks in Southern General Hospital, Stockholm. Twins, breast milk & maternal vaginal secretions all Covid-19 negative. Pre-publication version here AOGS-20-0296_Proof_hi with permission of the editor, Ganesh Acharya. Published online 6 April (click here). Citation: Gidlof S, Savchenko J, Brune, T, Josefsson H. COVID-19 in pregnancy with comorbidities: More liberal testing strategy is needed.  Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 

Study 19. Case report from Souzhou, China

Woman delivered by Caesarean at 30 weeks in the Affiliated Infectious Hospital of Soochow University, Souzhou, China. Although “no improvement was made on maximal ventilator support for four hours”, later “informed consent was obtained, an emergency cesarean section under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia was performed” and “uneventful perinatal course”.  Baby isolated and not infected. Both survived. Citation: Xiaotong Wang, Zhiqiang Zhou, Jianping Zhang, Fengfeng Zhu, Yongyan Tang, Xinghua Shen. A case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in a pregnant woman with preterm delivery. Clinical Infectious Diseases, ciaa200,

Study 18. Case report from Honduras, Central America

The woman went into preterm labour and delivered vaginally at 32 weeks at Hospital Escuela of Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Baby not infected. Both doing well at time of report. Citation. Zambrano LI, Fuentes-Barahona IC, Bejarano-Torres DA, Bustillo C, Gonzales G, Vallecillo-Chinchilla G, Sanchez-Martínez FE,  Valle-Reconco JA, Sierra M, Bonilla-Aldana DK, Cardona-Ospina JA, Rodríguez-Morales AJ. A pregnant woman with COVID-19 in Central America. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. Online 25 March 2020. 

1 April update

Study 6a added (details below).

30th March update

Study 17. Five from Maternal & Child Hospital of Hubei Province, Tongji Medical College

Two Caesarean and three vaginal births delivered in the Maternal and Child Hospital of Hubei Province, Tongji Medical College (click here). Or siyu chen.  All mothers recovered. All babies well. According to Wikipaedia the MCH of HP is the 10th clinical college/hospital associated with Tongji Medical College. It is distinct from both Union hospital and Tongji hospital. These five births are therefore additional to those in the various Union Hospital reports, and to those in study 15. Citation: Chen S, Liao E, Shao Y. Clinical analysis of pregnant women with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia. J Med Virol. 2020 Mar 28. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25789. [Epub ahead of print] 

Study 16. Three non-cases from Shenzhen 2nd People’s Hospital.

Shenzen, a city of 13 million had had 420 confirmed cases of Covid-19, the second highest number outside Hubei, up to March 11th. Despite an annual birth rate in the city of 188,000, the 2nd People’s Hospital saw no COVID-19 infected pregnant women. Instead they report three suspected cases who, after barrier nursing, and in one case surgery for an ectopic pregnancy, were later confirmed negative. Citation: Yu Chen, Zhe Li, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Wei-Hua Zhao, Zhi-Ying Yu. Maternal health care management during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) J Med Virol. 2020 Mar 26. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25787. [Epub ahead of print]

29th March – 3rd update

Study 15. Seven cases from Tongji in Lancet Infect Dis

These seven cases (click here) delivered at Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Wuhan, China) between Jan 1 and Feb 8, 2020. All mothers had mild Covid-19 disease and all were delivered around term by Caesarean section. One baby (Patient 1) tested positive for Covid-19 by throat PCR at 36 hours and was transferred to Wuhan Children’s hospital. His mother’s age, gravidity, parity, lack of direct contact with Hunan seafood market and history of hypothyroidism all suggest this is the same mother/infant dyad as in report 11. Note however the reported birthweights differ 3250g v 3205g. No babies had any clinical symptoms and all (including the transferred one) were discharged home well. Wikipedia lists ten different hospitals/clinical colleges affiliated with Tongji Medical College in Wuhan. The 1st clinical college is called Wuhan Union Hospital. The 2nd clinical college is called Wuhan Tongji Hospital. This series is therefore unlikely to overlap with the various case series from Union Hospital Tongji. Citation: Nan Yu, Wei Li, Qingling Kang, Zhi Xiong, Shaoshuai Wang, Xingguang Lin, Yanyan Liu, Juan Xiao, Haiyi Liu, Dongrui Deng, Suhua Chen, Wanjiang Zeng, Ling Feng, Jianli Wu. Clinical features and obstetric and neonatal outcomes of pregnant patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective, single-centre, descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis 2020 Published Online March 24, 2020

29th March – 2nd update.

Study 14. Seven pregnant women from New York Presbyterian

AJOG MFM Preprint (click here) or COVID_Early_Lessons_032620 NY presbyterian. via @neel_shah. The first reported cases outside China. Citation; Breslin N, Baptiste C, Miller R, Fuchs K, Goffman D, Gyamfi-Bannerman C, D’Alton M. COVID-19 in pregnancy: early lessons. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Available online 27 March 2020.

29th March update. Four more primary reports including ten more cases. All previously unreported.

Study 13. Cord blood serology from six babies in Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan

Six cases reported in JAMA (click here). All births by Caesarean. All mothers mild disease. All babies asymptomatic. Since they were born in a different hospital these are probably additional to the other 33 Wuhan neonates reported in JAMA. Revision 16 April: These are from the same hospital as study 1 and may overlap. Therefore removed from running totals.  Citation: Hui Zeng, Chen Xu, Junli Fan, Yueting Tang, Qiaoling Deng, Wei Zhang, Xinghua Long. Antibodies in Infants Born to Mothers With COVID-19 Pneumonia. JAMA. Published online March 26, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.4861

Study 12. Case report from Renmin Hospital Wuhan

Case report in JAMA of baby, born at Renmin Hospital, Wuhan, by Caesarean, 23 days after mother developed Covid-19, had IgM antibodies detected in cord blood (click here). This is additional to the two Remnin cases below, because the clinical details differ substantially. Citation: Lan Dong, Jinhua Tian, Songming He, Chuchao Zhu, Jian Wang, Chen Liu, Jing Yang. Possible Vertical Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 From an Infected Mother to Her Newborn. JAMA. Published online March 26, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.4621

Study 11. Caesarean birth & neonatal infection, Wuhan

Case report (click here) of a baby born by Caesarean to an infected mother at Wuhan Tongji Hospital.  The baby was separated from the mother at birth but became infected (pharyngeal PCR at 36 hours). Both mother and baby recovered. I believe this case report is additional to the 33 Wuhan neonatal cases reported in JAMA, because the details (e.g. birth weight) do not align. This is therefore the fourth infected baby born by Caesarean. Citation: Shaoshuai Wang, Lili Guo, Ling Chen, Weiyong Liu, Yong Cao, Jingyi Zhang, Ling Feng A Case Report of Neonatal 2019 Coronavirus Disease in China. Clinical Infectious Diseases, ciaa225,

Study 10. Two cases from Renmin Hospital, Wuhan

Two pregnant doctors with Covid-19 both delivered by Caesarean at term (click here). Also remnin two cases.  Babies separated and not infected. Probably additional to the 33 JAMA Wuhan neonates because neither neonate was transferred to Wuhan Children’s Hospital. Citation: Cuifang Fan, Di Lei, Congcong Fang, Chunyan Li, Ming Wang, Yuling Liu, Yan Bao, Yanmei Sun, Jinfa Huang, Yuping Guo, Ying Yu, Suqing Wang Perinatal Transmission of COVID-19 Associated SARS-CoV-2: Should We Worry?  Clinical Infectious Diseases, ciaa226,

28 March 2020 update. Three more more primary scientific reports.

Study 9. A Caesarean birth from Zhejiang

This case report is in Chinese but has an English abstract. Click here. It’s from the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou. There appears to be no overlap of the authors with the Zhejiang Caesarean below, so this may be a new case. The Caesarean is reported as being “successful” which presumably means both mother and baby survived. Citation: Kang X, Zhang R, He H, Yao Y, Zheng Y, Wen X, Zhu S. Anesthesia management in cesarean section for a patient with coronavirus disease 2019. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2020 May 25;49(1):0. Chinese. PMID: 32207592   

12 June reconsideration. The hospitals in S9 & S4 are both First Affiliated Hospital Zhejiang University grid.452661.2.  The full Chinese text of S9 seems to be no longer available so not possible to compare clinical details. Assume this is same case as that in S4.

Study 8. The 33 neonatal cases from Wuhan

A series of 33 neonates born to mothers who had Covid-19. All from Wuhan Children’s Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Reported in JAMA here. It seems possible that some or all of these infants are also included in the other Union Hospital Tongji series below.  Of the 26 neonates delivered by Caesarean three became infected. One born at 30 weeks and 2 days developed RDS, pneumonia and suspected sepsis, and required non-invasive ventilation. The authors speculate that some of his problems were related to prematurity rather than COVID-19. The other two neonates were healthy. All three survived. By inference, although this is not specifically stated in the paper, none of the seven infant born vaginally became infected.  Citation: Lingkong Zeng, Shiwen Xia, Wenhao Yuan, Kai Yan, Feifan Xiao, Jianbo Shao, Wenhao Zhou, Neonatal Early-Onset Infection With SARS-CoV-2 in 33 Neonates Born to Mothers With COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Pediatr. Published online March 26, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.0878

Study 7. The Quingdao case

This appears to be the first pregnancy case from  that city. Click here. The mother developed Covid-19 at 30 weeks but recovered and was discharged. At the time the report was written the pregnancy was ongoing. Citation: Rong Wen, Yue Sun, Quan-Sheng Xing A patient with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy in Qingdao, China Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection Available online 10 March 2020

22 March 2020 estimate. Assuming all the Union Hospital Tongji cases overlap, i.e. that Tongji has reported only 15 in total, there have been 38 published cases (39 babies) of Covid-19 infection in pregnancy. There have been no reports in the scientific literature of any maternal deaths, and all neonates have survived and not been infected. Four neonates remain undelivered.

Note 22 March 2020.  David A Schwarz (click here) in a review in Arch Pathol (preprint available March 21st) also makes the total 38 published cases.  However he includes a series published only in Chinese (his reference 17) Zhang I, Jiang Y, Wei M, Cheng BH, Zhou XC, Li J, et al. 湖北地区新型冠状病毒肺炎流行期间孕妇的 384 妊娠结局分析 [Analysis of the Pregnancy Outcomes in Pregnant Women With COVID-19 in Hubei Province]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi . 2020;55(0), E009. Available from: (accessed and translated 12 March 2020).  He reports this as including 16 cases.  For the moment I’ve not included this Hubei series, (but see Study 6a added 1 April).

Study 6a. 16 cases from Remnin

The cases included by David Schwarz on March 21 (see note above). English abstract (click here). Full text in Chinese here. Google translate used. The authors come from Remnin Hospital, but the paper reports that all 16 women were delivered by Caesarean at the Eastern Hospital of Wuhan University People’s Hospital.  Therefore assume no duplicates. Citation: Zhang Lu, Jiang Yan, Wei Min, et al. Analysis of pregnancy outcomes of pregnant women during the epidemic of new coronavirus pneumonia in Hubei [J / OL]. Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2020,55 (2020-03-08). DOI: 10.3760 / cma.j.cn112141-20200218-00111. 

Study 6. The 15 Union hospital Tongji cases

A series of 15 pregnant women, of whom 11 had delivered and four remained undelivered from Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, click here. These may include the four from the same hospital below and also possibly the 9 cases from the same hospital in Translational Paediatrics. Citation: Dehan Liu, Lin Li, Xin Wu, Dandan Zheng, Jiazheng Wang, Lian Yang and Chuansheng Zheng. Pregnancy and Perinatal Outcomes of Women With Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pneumonia: A Preliminary Analysis American Journal of Roentgenology: 1-6. 10.2214/AJR.20.23072

Study 5. The 9 Union Hospital Tongji cases

Published in Translational Paediatrics (click here). Nine mothers, ten neonates. Citation: Huaping Zhu, Lin Wang, Chengzhi Fang, Sicong Peng, Lianhong Zhang, Guiping Chang, Shiwen Xia, Wenhao Zhou. Clinical analysis of 10 neonates born to mothers with 2019-nCoV pneumonia. Translational Pediatrics Vol 9, No 1 (February 2020)  

Study 4. The Zeijang case

From the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China (click here) Caesarean for unclear indication. Baby not infected. Citation: Yang Li, Ruihong Zhao, Shufa Zheng, Xu Chen, Jinxi Wang, Xiaoli Sheng, Jianying Zhou, Hongliu Cai, Qiang Fang, Fei Yu, Jian Fan, Kaijin Xu, Yu Chen and Jifang Sheng Lack of Vertical Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020 Apr [date cited]. DOI: 10.3201/eid2606.200287

Study 3. The Sun Yat Sen series

These 13 cases were reported from the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, Province. Guangdong, P.R. China. (click here). Also pre-publication text 10.1016@j.jinf.2020.02.028). They included 3 patients from Zhejiang, 3 from other cities of Hubei and 1 each from Fujian, Shanxi, Beijing, Guangdong, Jiangxi, Heilongjiang and Anhui.   No infected neonates but one mother seriously ill on ECMO.  16 April update. Since patients in this series came from multiple centres, both in and outside Hubei province, they are likely to overlap with other studies. 12 mothers (3 undelivered) and 9 babies have therefore been removed from the running total. However case 6, where the woman was reported to be on ECMO and the baby stillborn, does not appear to have been reported elsewhere, so remains in the running totals. Citation: Yangli Liu, Haihong Chen, Kejing Tang, Yubiao Guo. Clinical manifestations and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy J Infect.

Study 2. The first Union Hospital Tongji series

From Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan. The original abstract here, described three cases and linked to an original paper in Chinese. These may overlap with four cases later published in Frontiers click here. There is also a pre-print of three cases from Tongji, (Click here or preprints202002.0373.v1) which includes some authors from the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene. Again these may overlap, or even be the same cases.

Study 2a. Citations: Chen S, Huang B, Luo DJ, Li X, Yang F, Zhao Y, Nie X, Huang BX. Pregnant women with new coronavirus infection: a clinical characteristics and placental pathological analysis of three cases. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2020 Mar 1;49(0):E005. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn112151-20200225-00138.

Study 2b. Liu, W.; Wang, Q.; Zhang, Q.; Chen, L.; Chen, J.; Zhang, B.; Lu, Y.; Wang, S.; Xia, L.; Huang, L.; Wang, K.; Liang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Turtle, L.; Lissauer, D.; Lan, K.; Feng, L.; Yu, H.; Liu, Y.; Sun, Z. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) During Pregnancy: A Case Series. Preprints 2020, 2020020373

Study 2c. Yan Chen, Hua Peng, Lin Wang, Yin Zhao, Lingkong Zeng, Hui Gao and Yalan Liu.      Infants Born to Mothers With a New Coronavirus (COVID-19)  Front. Pediatr., 16 March 2020 |

Study 1. The original Lancet nine

All from Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, click hereCitation: Huijun Chen, Juanjuan Guo, Chen Wang, Fan Luo, Xuechen Yu, Wei Zhang, Jiafu Li, Dongchi Zhao, Dan Xu, Qing Gong, Jing Liao, Huixia Yang, Wei Hou, Yuanzhen Zhang. Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records. Lancet. Volume 395, Issue 10226, 7–13 March 2020, Pages 809-815.

Jim Thornton, Keelin O’Donoghue & Kate Walker

The risk of dying from Covid-19 in pregnancy

May 3, 2020

For the facts click here.  This is my interpretation.

It’s not zero, 13/73 (18%) of pregnant women with Covid-19, whose cases made it into the newspapers, died (click here). But this must be an overestimate. Covid may not have caused all the deaths, and there will be selective reporting.

In the scientific papers 16/367 (4%) of women died (click here). These data should be more reliable, in that we can can be confident, at least for the women reported in detail from Iran (S67 & S70), that Covid-19 caused the deaths. The other 7 cases from Brazil and Mexico (S66) include less detail, and some were identified only from newspaper reports, so the cause of death must be in some doubt. There is also a more serious problem. All the deaths were reported in studies of maternal death due to Covid-19. Mothers who survived in the relevant regions were not reported. This must also be an overestimate.

Restricting analysis to the the larger series probably gives a better estimate. In Wuhan 0/109, Netherlands 0/91, Lombardy 0/42, NY Presbyterian/Columbia 0/33 mothers died. In total that’s zero deaths out of 275 pregnant women with Covid-19.

But the death rate can’t be zero. Some women really did die, and many mothers in the larger series were seriously ill and nearly died. In the Whuhan series (S55 here) 9/109 pregnant women had severe disease (hypoxaemia) although only one required ventilation. In the Netherlands 5/91 (S41, here), Lombardy 7/42 (S32 here), & NY Presbyterian/Columbia 2/33 (S41 here), needed intensive care. That’s 14/166 (8%) in total. There have been other reports of pregnant women who were seriously ill (S69, S50, S28, S19, S3 here).

Mortality for non-pregnant people, age 16-49, with Covid-19, who needed intensive care is 24% (ICNARC).  If pregnant women on intensive care had the same mortality, this would correspond to a 2% overall mortality. Not zero. But significantly lower than the biased newspaper rate of 18% or the biased “all scientific reports” rate of 4%.

A two percent maternal mortality rate from Covid-19 is my best guess.

Let’s put this in context. 98% of women who develop Covid-19 in pregnancy will survive. But the background risk of mothers dying in pregnancy these days is only 0.01%. This means the risk of a mother dying, if she gets Covid-19, may be 200 times greater than the background risk in pregnancy.

Covid-19 is a serious disease. Don’t underestimate it.

Jim Thornton

Edited noon 3 May.


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