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Lockdown cocktails

July 13, 2020

Drinking – not paddling – down the Loire

Our small gang have been walking the Camino de Santiago (click here or here), and more recently canoeing the Loire (click here or here). When lockdown put paid to our 2020 trip from Blois to Saumur we met up on Zoom instead, and inspired by Stanley Tucci (click here and here), drank cocktails. Here they are; some with a poem.

Hemingway’s daiquiri (click here). Philip Larkin’s gin & tonic (click here). A Nogroni (click here). James Bond’s Vesper martini (click here).

Forgive the rough edges. All filmed on different people’s phones, and once you’ve made it you’ve gotta drink it, so a second take wouldn’t help.

We also drank appropriate wine from the brothers Yapp, but there are no videos of that. First day sweet Vouvray (click here), 2nd a dry one (click here), 3rd Bourgueil (click here), 4th Saint-Nicolas-de-Bourgueil (click here) and 5th Saumur (click here). Forgotten the others, but to end with we popped open a fizz (click here). All more expensive than our usual riverbank plonk, but I guess we’d saved on the crossing. 

Jim Thornton

Wild swimming in the river Trent.

June 6, 2020

Downstream of Nottingham

One of my projects for the 2020 lock-down summer has been to swim the best spots. If you don’t mind disclaimer forms, safety briefings, and signing in and out [1], there’s a dedicated centre on Colwick Park lake (click here). But that’s not for me.

These swims are for privateers. All, bar Farndon, are on the left, northern, bank. I’ll try to remedy that in any updates. Update 16 June – Cromwell.

Stoke Bardolph

Right in front of the Ferry Boat pub, two or three slipways and landing stages provide easy access. Great spot. Crowded on sunny days.

  

It’s also about 100 yards upstream of the discharge from Severn Trent’s, state of the art, Stoke Bardolph treatment plant! Ideal if you’re nervous of pollution.

Gunthorpe

Park in front of the Unicorn Hotel, and swim off the metal boat ramp next to the water ski club.

      

Don’t forget Gunthorpe gravel pit. Some fishermen claim swimming is prohibited there, so be discreet. Walk under the road bridge for about 1/2 mile, and turn right immediately after footbridge. Lots of easy access and a lovely stony bed. Magical.

 

Hoveringham

On sunny days the parking along the river bank road gets full early, but the bank is stony and access easy. Any slight smell is from muck-spreading on the surrounding fields, not the river. Another good spot.

Hazleford

One of my favourites. The metal slipway at the end of the road provides easy access, albeit slippery. The car park is private and locked, but there’s plenty of space on the road. The boat moorings leave a sheltered area near the slipway for those who are nervous of venturing into midstream.

If the slipway’s crowded try upstream, along the river path, past the moorings and caravan park. Plenty of the fishing pegs have good access. I swam by the Km 23 mark.

Downstream is less good. Although there’s plenty of access points below the weir, the water tends to be frothy.

   

Fiskerton

Park about 1/4 mile downstream of the Bromley Arms and walk upstream. The problem here is the high river wall. Don’t even think of jumping! Some pontoons are barred off, and they all have “private mooring” signs, but no-one has ever objected to me using one of the open ones. Getting back on is tricky. Swim round to the river wall – shallow stony bed – and step back on with your dignity intact.

        

Peg 18 below Fiskerton

Park as above and walk downstream. Nottingham Piscatorial Society have marked their fishing pegs with numbers set in the grass. Peg 18 is obscured but it’s the best spot. If you avoid the fishing season, usually quiet enough for a skinny dip.

 

Farndon

From the roundabout at the south end of Newark bypass, take the B166, the old Fosse Way to Farndon. Turn right, then left, initially following signs to Farndon marina. Then ignore the 2nd right to Farndon marina and follow signs to The Waterfront. Sandy ramp. Lovely.

North Muskham

Down Ferry Lane to the Muskham Ferry pub, and swim off the slipway. Slightly muddy, but nothing to trouble a wild swimmer.

  

Cromwell

A farm track, signed as a footpath, from Cromwell village, crosses the A1 as a single track road to the lock. Plenty of parking at the sign which says “no parking or boat launching at the lock”. Upstream of the lock, by two brick barbeques, a ramp leads to a pontoon with steps into the water at each end. Perfect.

           

Carlton-on-Trent

Head for the Church, and Ferry Lane. The road to the river, Perry Lane, is full of “no access to river” signs so I parked back up in the village. In fact there is parking. Two possible swim spots. Upstream of the commercial wharf, access looks easy via stony muddy banks, but I was nervous of a metal detectorist on the opposite bank.

The wharf itself has a ladder down to the water, but it’s high and muddy and my courage failed again. About 1/4 mile downstream is best. Stony and a bit muddy, but a good gap in the nettles. The opposite bank also looked inviting.

Carlton is downstream of Cromwell weir, so right at the tidal limit. But it’s on the outside of the bend so you’re straight into fast flow. I kept station, but only just. If you got carried downstream, you’d end up clambering out through nettle beds.

   

I’ve never swum below Carlton. There must be good spots but I doubt they beat the ones above.

Jim Thornton

Footnote

  1.  One of the annoyances of river swimming is people banging on about the risks. Learn to swim and avoid the river in spate or near weirs. Weil’s disease is rare; only about 30 recreational cases, and less than one death, per year in the UK. Given the number of people coming into contact with river water, the drive to the riverbank is probably more risky, but avoid swimming with an open cut. Gastroenteritis is less of a risk for older swimmers who don’t wear wet suits; we don’t stay in so long, have developed antibodies and are wise enough not to swallow.

Covid-19 pregnancy news reports – 101 onwards

May 17, 2020

In roughly reverse order. Updated regularly. Click here for the first hundred news reports. Click here for ripe-tomato.org’s Covid-19 in pregnancy navigation page.

26 June update

152. An unnamed 40-year-old woman, with SARS-CoV-2, gave birth to a baby girl at Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria (click here). Both mother and the baby “are doing fine.” Report 27 April.

24 June update

151. An unnamed 24-year-old woman with Covid-19 and an ectopic pregnancy died in the Gautam Budh Nagar district of Uttar Pradesh, India, on 19 June (click here). Report 20 June.

150. Five pregnant girls have contracted Covid-19 at a state-run children’s shelter in Uttar Pradesh’s Kanpur districy (click here). They are being treated at Kanpur Medical College. No further details. Report 22 June.

149. An unnamed woman with Covid-19 was delivered by Caesarean section at 31 weeks in the Semmelweis Hospital in Budapest (click here). The baby tested negative. Report 23 June.

23 June update

R 20 update. Karen Mannering (report 20 here) gave birth to a healthy baby on 16 June (click here). Report 22 June.

148. A unnamed asymptomatic woman with SARS-Cov2 gave birth to triplets in Mexico on May 8th. (click here). The babies tested positive on the day of birth but are reportedly “not in danger”.  Report 23 June.

147. An unnamed 20-year-old woman who tested positive for coronavirus on June 14 gave birth on June 15 in a COVID care centre in Amravati in Maharashtra. Both mother and baby recovered. Another unnamed woman with COVID-19, from Rohankheda village in Morshi tehsil, gave birth to a boy on June 19 (click here). Both also recovered. Report 22 June.

146. Kate Foxall, 36, from Charminster contracted Covid-19 at 38 weeks, and gave birth to Ostara at St Mary’s Maternity Unit in Poole on May 15 (click here). Ostara’s coronovirus status was not reported but she was fine. Report 22 June.

145. An unnamed  29-year-old woman from Sombrerete in Mexico gave birth to triplets prematurely by Caesarean section on May 6th at Zacatecas Women’s Hospital (click here). She tested positive postnatally. The babies all tested negative. Two died from prematurity. Report 14 May

18 June update

144. Monica V. Garcia from Elizabeth, New Jersey contracted Covid-19 during pregnancy (click here). She recovered without special treatment. The baby is due August 3. Report 22 May.

143. Three pregnant women with Covid-19 in the Cayman Islands recovered with no special treatment (click here). No further details. Report 15 June.

15 June update

142. The Nair hospital in Mumbai successfully completed 302 deliveries of Covid-19 positive women. Doctors said none of the babies born in last two months had tested positive at the time of birth (click here). Report 15 June.

141. An unnamed woman with Covid-19 from Old Dhaka gave birth to a baby boy at Dhaka Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh (click here). Both recovered. Report 17 May.

140. An unnamed woman in late pregnancy tested positive in Meghalaya, Bangladesh (click here). No further details given. Report 10 June.

14 June update

139. Liberian nurse Sedia Marwolo, aged 38, was 32 weeks gestation when she contracted Covid-19 (click here). She recovered and later had a healthy baby. Report 23 May.

Update (click here) of report 17 from Baton Rouge (click here). The mother, who had required ventilation but laboured spontanously at 21+6 days, and whose baby had died soon after birth, is named as Kenna Allen. She recovered. Report 10 June.

138. An unnamed women contracted Covid-19 at 28 weeks gestation, and required delivery at 29 weeks at Dubai’s King’s College Hospital London (click here). The baby was not infected and both recovered. Two other women with less severe disease in the same hospital also recovered and their babies were not infected. Report 11 June.

137. Danielle Wood, age 32, contracted Covid-19  at 32 weeks gestation (click here). She self-isolated at home. Her baby born at 38 weeks was not infected. Report 12 June.

8 June update

136. A woman, identified only as Ilse, developed Covid-19 at 31 weeks gestation (click here). She required ventilation at Rodolfo de Mucha Macías hospital in Mexico City. At 34 weeks she was delivered by Caesarean. The baby tested negative and both recovered. The hospital has cared for four other women with Covid-19. Three recovered and their pregnancies are ongoing. No details were given of the fourth. Report 3rd june.

135. Rusia Goes, aged 42, from Rio de Janeiro developed Covid-19 at 8 months gestion (click here). She required ventilation and delivery by caesarean. The baby tested negative and was isolated from her. She eventually recovered. Report 26 May.

7 June update

134. An unnamed 20 year old woman died after giving birth at 7 months gestation to a stillborn baby in Vellore Medical College and Hospital (click here). The birth was by Caesarean section and the cause of death was reported as complications of pregnancy-induced hypertension. She had tested positive for Sars-Cov2. Report 6 June.

133. 79 pregnant women have tested positive for COVID-19 in Kashmir (click here). Mainly from the Anantnag district. No further details. Report 6 June.

132. Neelam Kumari, age 30, from Ghaziabad in Uttar Pradesh, died in the eighth month of her pregnancy of Covid-19 (click here). Report 7 June.

131. Abi Atkin, aged 34, from Sheffield contracted mild Covid-19 at 34 weeks (click here). She recovered without treatment and gave birth normally at term. Report 6 June.

5 June update

130. An unnamed 22-year-old woman from Padarayanapura, Bengaluru, India, contracted Covid-19 at 8 months gestation (click here). No further details. Report 5th June.

2 June update

129. Michelle Hunter contracted Covid-19 at term (click here). Her son, Hank, was delivered by Caesarean section at an unnamed Vernon, British Columbia hospital. He tested negative. Report 30 May.

1 June update

128. Wafa Boudissa, age 28, died of the coronavirus at 8 months gestation (click here). She was a doctor working in the Intensive Care unit of Ras El Oued hospital in eastern Algeria. Report May 18.

127. A unnamed 28-year-old woman, who was six months pregnant, died in Kalsekar hospital, Mumbra, India after three private hospitals refused to admit her because of suspected Covid-19 (click here). Her death certificate says she died of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) with suspected Covid. HT @DeepakNModi. Report 29 May.

31 May update 

126. Vegan lifestyle vlogger Rachel Ama contracted Covid-19 at 11 weeks gestation (click here). She recovered and the pregnancy is continuing. Report 30 May.

30 May update

125. Hilda Garson, age 28, from Manitoba, tested positive for SARS-Cov2 in March (click here). She self isolated, is now 21 weeks, and the pregnancy is ongoing. Three other pregnant women in Manitoba are reported to have tested positive. Report 28 May.

124. Rashmi Kapoor tested positive at term and delivered in Lok Nayak Jai Prakash Narayan Hospital in New Delhi (click here). Report 27 May.

123. Amanda Joyce, from Boston, Massachusetts, contracted Covid-19 on March 19th at about 21 weeks gestation (click here). She self-isolated at home and the pregnancy is ongoing. Report May 29.

28 May update Reports 121 and 122 added.

122. A belated addition. An anonymous woman with Covid-19 in Wuhan (click here) gives birth to an infected baby. Report 5 Feb.

121. Candice Bowie contracted Covid-19 in April in prison in Louisiana at 8 months gestation. On May 4th she was released and went to an unnamed hospital where she was scheduled to deliver by Caesarean (click here). Report 18 May.

26 May update Reports 115-120 added.

120. Diamond, a pseudonym, developed mild Covid 19 at term and delivered at Toronto’s Michael Garron Hospital (click here). Mother and baby survived. Report 21 May.

119. Tasnim Shaheen developed severe Covid-19 at about 28 weeks gestation. She required ventilation and Caesarean at Jamaica Hospital in Queens, New York (click here). Mother and baby are still in hospital but recovering. Report 11 May.

118. An unnamed 20-year-old coronavirus positive woman from Medchal has given birth to twins by Caesarean section at Gandhi Hospital in Hyderabad (click here). The mother was asymptomatic. The twins are awaiting testing. Report 26 May.

117. Lisseth Hernandez developed Covid-19 at 29 weeks gestation with twins. She required ventilation and was delivered at 30 weeks by Caesarean (click here). She recovered. The babies were isolated and did well. Report 19 May.

116. There are 2,561 pregnant women in Russia with coronavirus infection. 2,035 tested positive for SARS-Cov2. Presumably the rest are clinical diagnoses (click here).  There are 816 pregnant women with the coronavirus infection in Moscow alone. Report 25 May.

115. Katie Miller, the spokeswoman for US Vice President Mike Pence, is pregnant and has tested positive for SARS.Cov2 (click here). She has recovered and is back at work. The pregnancy is continuing. Report 26 May.

21 May update Reports 111-114 added.

114. Claire Trusson, age 37, developed Covid-19 at 34 weeks (click here). It was an IVF pregnancy. She gave birth at St Helier Hospital in Carshalton. Both recovered. Report 29 April.

113. Shaquilla James, of Summerton, South Carolina developed Covid-19 at 38 weeks gestation (click here). She gave birth the same day at McLeod Regional Medical Center in Florence, SC, but later was put on a ventilator. Mother & baby both recovered. Report 20 May.

112. Alicia Kappers, age 40, was 31 weeks when she developed Covid-19 on March 24 (click here). She was cared for at the TriHealth Good Samaritan Hospital in Cincinnati, Ohio, where she required prolonged ventilation and a tracheostomy. She went into pre-term labour at 32 weeks and was delivered by Caesarean. The baby tested negative. Both are recovering at home. Report 17 May

111. There have been 115 babies born to Covid-19 infected mothers at the Lokmanya Tilak Municipal General Hospital – also called Sion Hospital – in Mumbai (click here). Three babies were infected, but recovered. Two mothers died, one of whom was aged 28 and died after giving birth.  Report 21 May. (HT Francis Githae Murithi)

18 May update – report 109 added.

110. An unnamed woman with Covid-10 gave birth in the North Ossetia city of Beslan (click here). Both mother and baby are now home. The head of the unnamed hospital’s maternity unit, Hassan Tagaiev, said that 17 of 35 women who were about to give birth there had tested positive for Covid-19.  Report 18 May.

109. Kimberly Phillips, age 44, who had Covid 19, gave birth on May 2nd, at 40 weeks gestation, at the Princess of Wales hospital in Bridgend (click here & here). Her baby, Coolio Carl Justin Morgan, died age 3 days. The primary cause of death was hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, secondary cause maternal Covid-19. Kimberley is reported to have needed intensive care but has now been discharged. Reports 13, 14 May

17 May update reports 107 & 108 added

108. An unnamed 29-year-old from Sindhupalchowk district in Nepal gave birth on May 6, and died of COVID-19 on May 16, in Kathmandu (click here). Report 17 May

107. An unnamed 27-year-old, from Dharavi slum in Maharashtra, tested positive for coronavirus in Belagavi city on 14 May (click here). She was 7 months gestation. Dharavi is in Mumbai . Belagavi is 500 km to the south. Report 15 May

16 May update – reports 105 & 106 added

106. Ten pregnant women with Covid-19 have been were treated at Sheba Medical Center at Tel Hashomer Hospital in Tel Aviv (click here). Four have given birth, one of whom was in critical condition and was transferred to ICU. Report 15 May.

105. An unnamed woman with SARS-COV-2 gave birth at 39 weeks gestation in Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi  (click here). The baby was not infected. Report 15 May.

13 May update – reports 103 and 104 added.

104. Mili América Antelo, age 40, was pregnant with twins at when she developed severe Covid-19 at 28 weeks gestation (click here). She required Caesarean section and spent 11 days in intensive care (7 on a ventilator) at Vall d’Hebron hospital in Barcelona. The twins both tested negative. Mili has now been discharged. Report 11 May.

103. The Los Angles Times reports that roughly 134 pregnant women have tested positive, in LA county (click here). Over 82% of them were symptomatic. There have been 29 live births, and one stillbirth. Twenty-four infants were tested at birth, including one set of twins, and none tested positive. The virus has not been detected in amniotic fluid, breast milk or other “maternal samples”. Report 11 May.

10 May update – cases 97-102 added

102. Six women with COVID-19 have given birth in a government hospital in Peru. Five babies were healthy and have been discharged. The sixth woman remains in a serious condition in the intensive care unit. Her baby was born prematurely and remains hospitalized. None of the babies tested positive for COVID-19 (click here). Report 9 May.

101. Jessa Yager, from Grand island, Nebraska, developed Covid-19 while pregnant  (click here). She is recovering and the pregnancy is ongoing at 36 weeks. Report 7 May.

Jim Thornton

Covid-19 in pregnancy 101 onwards

May 15, 2020

Primary sources. Updated 12th July

In roughly reverse order. Updated regularly. Click here for studies 1-100. Click here for ripe-tomato.org’s Covid-19 in pregnancy navigation page.

12 July update – studies 183 to 185 added

Study 185 – Two cases from Spain

The fetuses of two pregnant women with Covid-19 developed transient skin oedema at 21 and 25 weeks gestation (click here or Fetal_Transient_Skin_Edema_in_Two_Pregnant_Women.97307). One mother, cared for at Vall d’Hebron University Hospital in Barcelona, had severe disease requiring ventilation. The other, hospital not stated, had mild disease only. Amniotic fluid was negative for SARS-CoV-2 in both cases. Both resolved and the pregnancies are ongoing. The Barcelona case at least was probably included in study 140. Citation: Garcia-Manau P, Garcia-Ruiz I, Rodo C, et al. Fetal Transient Skin Edema in Two Pregnant Women With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 7]. Obstet Gynecol. 2020;10.1097/AOG.0000000000004059. doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000004059

Study 184 – 100 cases from Paris

One hundred pregnant women with Covid-19 were treated in four Paris hospitals between March 12 & April 13, 2020 (click here). Ten were admitted to ICU of whom 9 required intubation. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, but one neonatal death due to prematurity. All neonates were tested for SARS-CoV-2. One was positive but did not show signs of respiratory illness. The hospitals were Antoine Béclère, Clamart; Bicêtre Hospital, Le Kremlin Bicêtre; Louis-Mourier, Colombes; and Centre Hospitalier Sud Francilien, Evry. They therefore include one of the cases in study 48, are included in study 150 and probably also overlap with those in study 157. Citation: Vivanti AJ, Mattern J, Vauloup-Fellous C, Jani J, Rigonnot L, El Hachem L, Le Gouez A, Desconclois C, Ben M’Barek I, Sibiude J, Benachi A, Picone O, Cordier AG. Retrospective Description of Pregnant Women Infected with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 6;26(9). doi: 10.3201/eid2609.202144. Online ahead of print.

Study 183 – 18 cases from Renmin hospital in Wuhan

Between Jan 30, & Mar 1, 2020, 10 clinically diagnosed and 8 swab positive pregnant women with COVID-19 were treated at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University (click here or s12884-020-03026-3). These cases probably overlap with studies 10, 36, 37, 40, and 80. They are also likely to be included in studies 55 & 57. Citation: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) infection during late pregnancy: a report of 18 patients from Wuhan, China. Zhang L, Dong L, Ming L, Wei M, Li J, Hu R, Yang J. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2020 Jul 8;20(1):394. doi: 10.1186/s12884-020-03026-3.

11 July update study 181 & 182  added. Latter HT Fred Peret.

Study 182 – 124 maternal deaths from Covid-19 in Brazil

Between Feb 26 & June 18, 978 pregnant and postpartum women with COVID-19 were registered with the Brazilian Ministry of Health’s Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Surveillance System, of whom 124 died (click here or IJOGfinal (1)). They probably include five cases from study 66Citation: Takemoto, M.L.S., Menezes, M.O., Andreucci, C.B., Nakamura‐Pereira, M., Amorim, M.M.R., Katz, L. and Knobel, R. (2020), The tragedy of COVID‐19 in Brazil: 124 maternal deaths and counting. Int J Gynecol Obstet. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/ijgo.13300

Study 181 – Rise in stillbirths during pandemic in London

Nineteen women with Covid-19 were cared for at St Georges Hospital in London during the period February 1 to June 14, 2020. None experienced stillbirth. However the overall stillbirth rate in the hospital was significantly higher than in the pre-pandemic period (click here or jama_khalil_2020_ld_200076). Included in study 92. Citation: Khalil A, von Dadelszen P, Draycott T, Ugwumadu A, O’Brien P, Magee L. Change in the Incidence of Stillbirth and Preterm Delivery During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA. Published online July 10, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.12746

4th July update – studies 178 -180 added.

Study 180 – case report of postnatal Covid-19 from Monza

A mother developed pyrexia on day two after a normal birth, and both her and her baby tested positive (click here or e20201121.full). The baby was cared for in Fondazione Monza e Brianza per il Bambino e la sua Mamma and Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale-Monza. Monza is in Lombardy so this case may be included in studies 32, 64, 109 & 114. However as a postnatal case it may not. We’re keeping an open mind.  Citation: Sinelli M, Paterlini G, Citterio M, et al. Early Neonatal SARS-CoV-2 Infection Manifesting With Hypoxemia Requiring Respiratory Support. Pediatrics. 2020;146(1):e20201121

Study 179 – 67 cases from New York

67 women with SARS-CoV-2 infection from March 13 to April 24, (click here or s-0040-1713851). Patients cared for in seven hospitals within the Northwell Health system in New York: North Shore University Hospital, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Long Island Jewish Forest Hills, Huntington Hospital, Southside Hospital, Lenox Hill Hospital, and Staten Island University Hospital. The patients probably overlap with those reported in studies 49, 83, 113,118,134 & 162. Citation: Moti Gulersen, Matthew J. Blitz, Burton Rochelson, Michael Nimaroff, Weiwei Shan, Eran Bornstein Clinical Implications of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in the Viable Preterm Period. Am J Perinatol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713851

Study 178 – Ten cases from Wuhan

Ten pregnant women with COVID-19, treated in the Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University (grid.413247.7) from Jan 20 to Feb 6 (click here or 10.1371@journal.pone.0235134). These women are probably also included in studies 1, 13, 55 & 57, and may also overlap with study 75. Citation: Gong X, Song L, Li H, Li L, Jin W, Yu K, et al. (2020) CT characteristics and diagnostic value of COVID-19 in pregnancy. PLoS ONE 15(7): e0235134. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0235134

3rd July update – study 177 added. Study 176 removed. Duplicate of study 89.  Jim’s mistake. HT Keelin.

Study 177 – CTG changes in 12 Covid-19 pregnancies

Intrapartum electronic fetal cardiotocograms (CTGs) from 11 women with Covid-19 and one antepartum CTG at 28 weeks, were evaluated using a physiological system (click here or PIIS0301211520304243). All eleven delivered babies had normal Apgar scores and cord pH. No details of maternal severity, mode of delivery or other baby details were given. Some patients had been cared for in Puerta de Hierro hospital, Madrid, which also included cases in studies 125 and 151.  Others came from Germans Trias i Pujol Hospital, Badalona, a northern suberb of Barcelona, which has not previously reported cases. Citation: Gracia-Perez-Bonfils A, Martinez-Perez O, Llurba E, Chandraharan E, Fetal heart rate changes on the cardiotocograph trace secondary to maternal COVID-19 infection, European Journal of Obstetrics and amp; Gynecology and Reproductive Biology (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.06.049

1 July update – study 176 added.

Study 176 – Case report from San Francisco. Deleted 3 July duplicate of study 89

A 34 year old woman contracted Covid-19 at 28 weeks gestation (click here or Acute_Respiratory_Distress_Syndrome_in_a_Preterm.11). She required ventilation and was delivered by Caesarean section. The baby tested negative. Both recovered. The hospital is not named but authors are all affiliated with University of California, San Francisco. Citation: Blauvelt, Christine A. MD; Chiu, Catherine MD; Donovan, Anne L. MD; Prahl, Mary MD; Shimotake, Thomas K. MD; George, Ronald B. MD, FRCPC; Schwartz, Brian S. MD; Farooqi, Naghma A. MD; Ali, Syed S. MD; Cassidy, Arianna MD; Gonzalez, Juan M. MD, PhD; Gaw, Stephanie L. MD, PhD Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in a Preterm Pregnant Patient With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), Obstetrics & Gynecology: July 2020 – Volume 136 – Issue 1 – p 46-51 doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003949

30 June update – study 175 added

Study 175 – 5 cases from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, US

Five pregnant women with Covid-19 were treated with remdesivir (click here or mccoy remdesevir ajogmfm). Three were ventilated, four delivered and all recovered. One pregnancy is ongoing.  All neonates tested negative. From author affiliations these cases may overlap with studies 65 and 86. Citation: Mccoy JA, Short WR, Srinivas SK, Levine LD, Hirshberg A, Compassionate use remdesivir for treatment of severe COVID-19 in pregnant women at a United States academic center, American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajogmf.2020.100164.

26 June update –  study 174 added

Study 174 – US CDC Covid-19 & pregnancy weekly tracking data

The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) are now publishing weekly COVID-19 in pregnancy tracking data. The June 25th update (click here) duplicates that in study 172. Citation: US CDC Weekly COVID-19 Pregnancy Data; Pregnant women with COVID-19, United States [January 22-June 23, 2020] https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/cases-updates/special-populations/pregnancy-data-on-covid-19.html Accessed 26 June 2020.

25 June update – studies 171 to 173 added. (Study 173 belatedly).

Study 173 – 33 cases from Covid-Net

An April 6th MMWR, which we had previously missed, of SARS-CoV-2 hospitalisations reported to COVID-NET, a network of hospitals representing about 10% of the United States, included 33 pregnant women of whom 3 (9%) had been hospitalised (click here or mm6915e3-H). These cases overlap with studies 171 and 172. Citation: Garg S, Kim L, Whitaker M, et al. Hospitalization Rates and Characteristics of Patients Hospitalized with Laboratory-Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 — COVID-NET, 14 States, March 1–30, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69:458–464. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6915e3external icon

Study 172 – 8,207 pregnant woman with SARS-CoV-2 from CDC

Of 8,207 pregnant women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and were reported to the US Centers For Disease Control by 7th June, 2,587 (31.5%) were hospitalised, 120 (1.5%) admitted to ICU, 42 (0.5%) ventilated, and 16 (0.2%) died. Comparative figures for 83,205 non-pregnant women in the same age group were; 4,840 (5.8) hospitalised, 757 (0.9%) admitted to ICU, 225 (0.3%) ventilated, 208 (0.2%) died (click here or mm6925a1-H). Citation: Ellington S, Strid P, Tong VT, et al. Characteristics of Women of Reproductive Age with Laboratory-Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 Infection by Pregnancy Status — United States, January 22–June 7, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69:769–775. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6925a1external icon

Study 171 – 36 cases from Covid-Net 

In this MedRxiv preprint, of 2,491 adults hospitalised with Covid-19, in the US Covid-Net database (154 acute hospitals in 13 states), 26 were pregnant. This represent 12.9% of the 279 women of childbearing age (15–49 years) in the cohort (click here or 2020.05.18.20103390v1.full). [Comment – see table 1. The percentage seems to be wrong.] Citation: Lindsay Kim, Shikha Garg, Alissa O’Halloran, Michael Whitaker, Huong Pham, Evan J. Anderson, Isaac Armistead, Nancy M. Bennett, Laurie Billing, Kathryn Como-Sabetti, Mary Hill, Sue Kim, Maya L. Monroe, Alison Muse, Arthur Reingold, William Schaffner, Melissa Sutton, H. Keipp Talbot, Salina M. Torres, Kimberly Yousey-Hindes, Rachel A Holstein, Charisse Cummings, Lynette Brammer, Aron Hall, Alicia Fry, Gayle E. Langley. Interim Analysis of Risk Factors for Severe Outcomes among a Cohort of Hospitalized Adults Identified through the U.S. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) medRxiv 2020.05.18.20103390; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.18.20103390

24 June update – studies 165 to 170 added

Study 170 – 241 cases from the Netherlands

The 19th June update of NethOSS (click here), accessed 24 June 2020, contains the following. 6/224 women with brief additional details were admitted to intensive care. One mother died. 69 women have given birth, 26 by Caesarean. 152 pregnancies are ongoing. No baby has died. No babies were infected. Citation: See Studies 42, 46, 120, 141, & 147. Available here. Accessed 24 June 2020.

Study 169 – 19 June ICNARC report

The 19th June ICNARC update (click here or ICNARC COVID-19 report 2020-06-19.pdf) contains 26 currently, and 37 recently, pregnant women critically ill with Covid-19.  Of these 10 are currently, and 24 have in the past,  received advanced respiratory support. NOTE – ICNARC has recently started reporting pregnancy data subdivided by white/non white ethnicity.

Study 168 – The PRIORITY study 24 June 2020

The PRIORITY (Pregnancy Coronavirus Outcomes Registry) study (click here) has issued no formal reports yet. However the dashboard (click here accessed 24 June 2020) shows 882 participants, by age group, gestational age band, ethnic group and US state of residence. Citation: University of California San Francisco. PRIORITY Study dashboard https://priority.ucsf.edu/dashboard. Accessed 24 June 2020.

Study 167 – 23 women in the first trimester from Turin

Of 23 women in this preprint from Medxiv, testing positive for SARS-Cov2 in the first trimester, 11 miscarried and 12 had ongoing prgnancies (click here or 2020.06.19.20135749v1.full). This was a case control study comparing SARS-Cov2 rates between women experiencing miscarriage and matched women with ongoing pregnancy. The rates did not differ significantly. The patients were cared for at S. Anna Hospital, Turin, which has not previously reported cases in the first trimester. Citation: Stefano Cosma, Andrea Carosso, Jessica Cusato, Fulvio Borella, Marco Carosso, Marialuisa Bovetti, Claudia Filippini, Antonio D’Avolio, Valeria Ghisetti, Giovanni Di Perri, Chiara Benedetto. COVID-19 and first trimester spontaneous abortion: a case-control study of 225 pregnant patients. medRxiv 2020.06.19.20135749; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.19.20135749

Study 166 – 3 cases from Hubei, China

Three pregnant woman with Covid-19 were all delivered by Caesarean (click here or E603.full).  The babies all tested negative. The mothers came from a cohort of 166 pregnant women testing positive for SARS-Cov19 in a predefined administrative region containing 12 hospitals, including the Xiangyang First People’s Hospital in Hubei, China. This hospital is not found on GRID.ac. Citation: Peng An, Bradford J. Wood, Wei Li, Min Zhang, Yingjian Ye. Postpartum exacerbation of antenatal COVID-19 pneumonia in 3 women. CMAJ Jun 2020, 192 (22) E603-E606; DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.200553

Study 165 – 65 cases from Madrid

Of 65 women with Covid-19, 13 were diagnosed postnatally. Of the 52 antenatal cases, 32 developed pneumonia and two required ICU admission (click here or PIIS2589537020301516. No mother died.  6/32 women with pneumonia had delivered and no babies were infected. Patients were cared for at University Hospital “12 de Octubre”. They therefore probably overlap with those reported in study 151 but differ from those in study 125. Citation: R. San-Juan et al., Incidence and clinical profiles of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant women: A single-centre cohort study from Spain, EClinicalMedicine (2020), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100407

23 June update – studies 163 & 164 added

Study 164 – Two cases from New York

One woman with severe Covid-19 miscarried at 22 weeks. At the time of writing she remained ventilated. Another woman required Caesarean birth at 29 weeks and recovered. Her baby required intubation and tested positive for SARS-Cov2 at 6 days (click here or Futterman NY s-0040-1712978).  The hospital is not named. Author affiliations are Dept. OBGYN, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, which is affiliated with multiple clinical sites. These cases may therefor have been previously reported. Citation: Itamar Futterman, Miriam Toaff, Liel Navi, Camille A. Clare. COVID-19 and HELLP: Overlapping Clinical Pictures in Two Gravid Patients. Am J Perinatol Rep 2020;10:e179–e182.

Study 163 – 9 cases with placental histology from Milan

Of 9 women with SARS-CoV2 infection delivered between March and April 2020 at Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda – Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico (Milan), all mothers recovered and all babies tested negative (click here or Cribiu Eur JOG IIS0301211520304164). Placental histology is reported. Although the hospital name differs these cases are probably included in studies 32 & 64. Citation: Cribi `u FM, Croci GA, Gobbo AD, Rizzuti T, Iurlaro E, Tondo M, Viscardi A, Bosari S, Ferrero S, HISTOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PLACENTA IN COVID19 PREGNANT WOMEN, European Journal of Obstetrics and amp; Gynecology and Reproductive Biology (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.06.041

21 June update – studies 161 & 162 added

Study 162 – 462 cases (70 severe) from New York

Of 462 pregnant women with Covid-19, 70 had severe disease, 14 were admitted to ICU, and two died (click here or PIIS0002937820306360). The patients were cared for in the Northwell Hospital network which includes Maimonides Medical Centre. The paper includes a statement about severe case overlap with studies 113, 118 & 134. Shared authorship suggests overlap with studies 49 and 83 as well. Citation: Blitz MJ, Rochelson B, Minkoff H, Meirowitz N, Prasannan L, London V, Rafael TJ, Chakravarthy S, Bracero LA, Wasden SW, Pachtman Shetty SL, Santandreu O, Chervenak FA, Schwartz BM, Nimaroff M, Maternal Mortality Among Women with COVID-19 Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.06.020.

Study 161 – 54 cases from Strasbourg

Of 54 pregnant women with confirmed (n=38) or suspected (n=16) COVID-19 in pregnancy treated at Strasbourg University Hospital (France) from March 1 to April 3, there was one miscarriage, 21 live births (12 vaginal, 9 cesarean), and 32 ongoing pregnancies (click here or PIIS0002937820306396). Five women were admitted to ICU, three required mechanical ventilation and one ECMO. No mothers died, although at the time of writing the woman on ECMO remained on it. All babies tested negative & none died. Strasbourg doctors co-authored the GROG report, so these cases are probably included in study 150. Citation: Sentilhes L, De Marcillac F, Jouffrieau C, Kuhn P, Thuet V, Hansmann Y, Ruch Y, Fafi-Kremer S, Deruelle P, COVID-19 in pregnancy was associated with maternal morbidity and preterm birth, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.06.022.

18 June update – studies 157-160 added

Study 160 – 241 cases from New York

Of 241 pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed SARSCoV-2 infection who gave birth between March 13 & April 12, there were 245 live births to 241 women (6 sets of twins), & 2 stillbirths (click here or Characteristics_and_Outcomes_of_241_Births_to.97310). 17 women were admitted to ITU and 9 intubated. No mothers died, although one woman remained intubated at time of writing. 27% of neonates were admitted to NICU. Of liveborns with SARS-CoV-2 test results 236/230 tested negative. No further neonatal outcomes reported. The five hospitals were “Montefiore Medical Center; Mount Sinai Health System, including Mount Sinai Hospital and Mount Sinai West; its affiliate, NYC Health and Hospitals- Elmhurst Hospital; NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital- Columbia University; and New York University Langone Health, including NYU Langone Hospitals, Manhattan campus, and NYU Langone Hospitals-Brooklyn”. These cases therefore likely overlap with studies 14, 27, 41, 49, 83, 85, 86, 95, 95, 119, 135, 136, & 152. They probably do not overlap with women in studies 61, 113, 118, 122 & 134, which included women cared for in different New York centres. Women in Study 99 are unclear. Citation: Khoury, Rasha MD, MPH; Bernstein, Peter S. MD; Debolt, Chelsea MD; Stone, Joanne MD; Sutton, Desmond M. MD; Simpson, Lynn L. MD; Limaye, Meghana A. MD; Roman, Ashley S. MD; Fazzari, Melissa PhD; Penfield, Christina A. MD; Ferrara, Lauren MD; Lambert, Calvin MD; Nathan, Lisa MD; Wright, Rodney MD; Bianco, Angela MD; Wagner, Brian MD; Goffman, Dena MD; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia MD; Schweizer, William E. MD; Avila, Karina MPH; Khaksari, Bijan MPH; Proehl, Meghan MPH; Heitor, Fabiano MD; Monro, Johanna BS; Keefe, David L. MD; D’Alton, Mary E. MD; Brodman, Michael MD; Makhija, Sharmila K. MD; Dolan, Siobhan M. MD Characteristics and Outcomes of 241 Births to Women With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection at Five New York City Medical Centers, Obstetrics & Gynecology: June 16, 2020 – Volume Publish Ahead of Print – Issue – doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004025

Study 159 – Three severe cases from New Jersey

Three pregnant women with Covid-19 required ventilation (click here or s-0040-1713664). All three recovered and their pregnancies are ongoing. They were cared for in Morristown Medical Center and St. Peter’s University Medical Center in central New Jersey, neither of which have previously reported cases. Citation: Lucarelli E, Behn C, Lashley S, Smok D, Benito C, Oyelese Y. Mechanical Ventilation in Pregnancy Due to COVID-19: A Cohort of Three Cases [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 16]. Am J Perinatol. 2020;10.1055/s-0040-1713664. doi:10.1055/s-0040-1713664

Study 158 – Four patients undergoing amniocentesis from Spain.

Four pregnant women with Covid-19 underwent midtrimester amniocentesis for prenatal diangosis of other conditions (click here or 1-s2.0-S0014256520301569-main). No amniotic samples tested positive. The hospital is not named but from author affiliations is probably Hospital Universitario Maternal-Infantil de Jaén, Jaén. This hospital has not previously reported cases, but these cases may be included in study 151 which included registry cases from Spain. Citation: Hijona Elósegui JJ, et al. ¿Existe transmisión materno-fetal del SARS-CoV-2 durante la gestación? Rev Clin Esp. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rce.2020.06.001

Study 157 – 88 cases from France

Eighty eight pregnant women with Covid-19 responded to an anonymous internet survey hosted by the French television pregnancy show “la Maison des Maternelles” (click here or PIIS030121152030364X). 6 had been sufficiently severe to require oxygen. 14 had delivered, 5 by Caesarean. Many are probably included in study 150. Citation: J. Cohen, et al., Covid-19 in pregnant women: General data from a French National Survey, Eur J Obstet Gynecol (2020), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.06.002

16 June update study 156 added

Study 156 – Case report of Covid-19, pregnancy & pancreatitis

A 36-year-old woman contracted Covid-19 at 33 weeks (click here or 1-s2.0-S2214911220300588-main). Pancreatitis was diagnosed on the basis of raised lipase, despite normal amylase. She recovered and was later delivered by Caesarean. Both mother & baby discharged  in stable condition. Author affiliations Saint Joseph Hospital, Denver, Colorado. Citation: Sarah R. Rabice, Paulina C. Altshuler, Claire Bovet, Cathlyn Sullivan, Amy J. Gagnon. COVID-19 infection presenting as pancreatitis in a pregnant woman: A case report. Case Reports in Women’s Health. Volume 27, 2020, e00228, ISSN 2214-9112, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crwh.2020.e00228.

15 June update study 155 added

Study 155 – Case report of placental infection from Yale

This MedRxiv preprint (click here or SARS-CoV-2 infection of the placenta (002)) (click here for published peer reviewed version update 24 June) reports a 35-year-old woman who contracted Covid-19 at 22 weeks gestation. She had coagulopathy and hypertension, and was offered and accepted pregnancy termination, which was performed under GA with extubation on day 1.  SARS-CoV-2 RNA was present at high levels in the placenta, and virions were visible on electron microscopy. The hospital is not named but author affiliations are Yale School of Medicine. The case is therefore probably included in study 132Citation: Hillary Hosier, Shelli Farhadian, Raffaella Morotti, Uma Deshmukh, Alice Lu-Culligan, Katherine Campbell, Yuki Yasumoto, Chantal Vogels, Arnau Casanovas-Massana, Pavithra Vijayakumar, Bertie Geng, Camila Odio, John Fournier, Anderson Brito, Joseph Fauver, Feimei Liu, Tara Alpert, Reshef Tal, Klara Szigeti-Buck, Sudhir Perincheri, Christopher Larsen, Aileen Gariepy, Gabriela Aguilar, Kristen Fardelmann, Malini Harigopal, Hugh Taylor, Christian Pettker, Anne Wyllie, Charles Dela Cruz, Aaron Ring, Nathan Grubaugh, Albert Ko, Tamas Horvath, Akiko Iwasaki, Uma Reddy, Heather Lipkind.  SARS-CoV-2 Infection of the Placenta. medRxiv 2020.04.30.20083907; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.30.20083907

Update 24 June. Peer reviewed citation, [online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 23]. J Clin Invest. 2020;139569. doi:10.1172/JCI139569

11 June update studies 154 & 154 added

Study 154 – Case report from Northwick Park Hospital, London

A 34-year woman with immunologic thrombocytopaenia developed a cough, fever, petechiae and gum bleeding at 20 weeks gestation (click here or Nesr BJH case bjh.16928). She had a low platelet count, swabbed positive for SARS-CoV-2 and recovered. Pregnancy outcome not reported, but by implication ongoing. Case presumably included in study 92.  Citation: Nesr, G., Garnett, C., Bailey, C. and Arami, S. (2020), ITP flare with mild COVID‐19 infection in pregnancy: A case report. Br J Haematol. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/bjh.16928

Study 153 – Case report from Jordan

A 30-year-old woman, contracted mild Covid-19 at 36 weeks gestation (click here or Al Zaghal Case Rep Jordan 1-s2.0-S2214911220300424-main). She delivered by Caesarean. The baby tested negative. Both recovered. The first report from Jordan. Citation: Laila A. AlZaghal, Najwa AlZaghal, Safwan O. Alomari, Nail Obeidat, Basil Obeidat, Wail A. Hayajneh. Multidisciplinary team management and cesarean delivery for a Jordanian woman infected with SARS-COV-2: A case report. Case Reports in Women’s Health 27 (2020) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crwh.2020.e00212

9 June update – studies 151 & 152 added.

Study 152 – 2 severe cases from New York

Two women with Covid-19 required ventilation and caesarean delivery (click here or Silverstein AmJPerinatol Rep s-0040-1712925). Both neonates tested negative. Both mothers recovered. The hospital(s) are not named but author affiliations suggest either Langone Medical Center or Bellevue Hospital Center. The cases are therefore probably included in studies 85 & 86, and possibly also in studies 49 & 83. Citation: Jenna S. Silverstein, Meghana A. Limaye, Sara G. Brubaker, Ashley S. Roman, Judita Bautista, Judith Chervenak, Adam J. Ratner, Philip M. Sommer, Nicole M. Roselli, Charlisa D. Gibson, David Ellenberg, Christina A. Penfield. Acute Respiratory Decompensation Requiring Intubation in Pregnant Women with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Am J Perinatol Rep 2020;10:e169–e175.

Study 151 – 82 cases from Spain

Of 82 women with singleton pregnancies and Covid-19, who delivered within 14 days of disease onset, collected from from 96 level 2 or 3 maternity hospitals in Spain, 9 were admitted to ICU and 7 ventilated (click here or jama_martnezperez_2020_ld_200062). Five babies tested positive. No mothers or babies died. The hospitals are not named but author affiliations include Puerta de Hierro University Hospital, 12 Octubre University Hospital, & Gregorio Marañon University Hospital, all three from Madrid. Three other authors are associated with the Covi-Preg registry in Switzerland (click here). The cases probably overlap with those in studies 53125. Citation: Martínez-Perez O, Vouga M, Cruz Melguizo S, et al. Association Between Mode of Delivery Among Pregnant Women With COVID-19 and Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Spain. JAMA. Published online June 08, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.10125

8 June update – study 150 added.

Study 150 – 617 cases from France

Thirty three maternity units from the “Groupe de Recherche en Obstétrique et Gynécologie (GROG)” treated 617 pregnant women with COVID-19 between March 1 & April 14 (click here or GIlles France JOG HR). Eighty three women required nasal oxygen, a further 10 non-invasive ventilation, a further 29 mechanical ventilation and a further six, ECMO.  One woman died. There were 5 miscarriages and 7 stillbirths among the 181 pregnancies which had ended. Among the 190 live births (7 twins & 1 set of triplets) there was one neonatal death. Two babies tested positive. The 33 maternity units (including 24 tertiary referral centers) are not named, although 19 can be guessed from the author affiliations. Citation: Kayem G, Alessandrini V, Azria E, Blanc J, Bohec C, Bornes M, Bretelle F, Ceccaldi P-Franc¸ois, Chalet Y, Chauleur C, Cordier A-Gael, Deruelle P, Desbri`ere R, Doret M, Dreyfus M, Driessen M, Fermaut M, Gallot D, Garab´edian C, Huissoud C, Lecarpentier E, Luton D, Morel O, Perrotin F, Picone O, Rozenberg P, Schmitz T, Sentilhes L, Sroussi J, Vayssi`ere C, Verspyck E, Vivanti AJ, Winer N, A snapshot of the Covid-19 pandemic among pregnant women in France, Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jogoh.2020.101826

6 June update – study 149 added

Study 149 – 73 cases, 8 severe, from New Jersey

Of 73 pregnant women with COVID-19, 31 were admitted, of whom 8 visited ICU. Of these 6 needed intubation, and 1 ECMO (click here or 1-s2.0-S2589933320300951-main). 7 of the 8 ICU cases were delivered by Caesarean and one remains undelivered.  All babies were isolated and fed artificial or donor milk. All tested negative. All mothers were discharged from intensive care. No babies died but four remain in hospital. No details given of the non ICU cases. The “network’s two largest hospitals” in which the patients were treated are not named. The authors are affiliated with three large hospitals in New Jersey  Hackensack University Medical Center, University Hospital (Newark, New Jersey) and Hackensack Meridian Jersey Shore University Medical Center. The patients are therefore probably different from those reported in Studies 86, and 111. Citation: Romagano MP, Guerrero K, Spillane N, Kayaalp E, Smilen SW, Alvarez M, Alvarez-Perez J, Francis Kim A, Aschner J, Al-Khan A, Perinatal outcomes in critically ill pregnant women with COVID-19, American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajogmf.2020.100151.

5 June update – studies 143 to 148 added.

Study 148 – 29th May ICNARC report

The 29th May ICNARC update (click here or ICNARC COVID-19 report 2020-05-29.pdf) contains 23 currently, and 34 recently, pregnant women critically ill with Covid-19. Of these 10 and 20 respectively had received advanced respiratory support.

Study 147 – 223 cases from the Netherlands

The 5th June  update of NethOSS (click here), accessed 4 June 2020, contains the following. 6/210 women with brief additional details were admitted to intensive care. One mother died. 66 women have given birth, 25 by Caesarean. 142 pregnancies are ongoing. No baby has died. No babies were infected. Citation: See Studies 42, 46, 120, & 141. Available here. Accessed 5 June 2020.

Study 146 – 8 cases from Turkey

Two pregnant women with Covid-19 were delivered by Caesarean at term, one miscarried at 7 weeks and five pregnancies are ongoing (click here or jum.15367).  One delivered baby tested negative. No details are reported of the other. All mothers recovered. The tertiary hopsital is not named but from author affiliations is probably Sehit Prof Dr Ilhan Varank Sancaktepe Training & Research Hospital, Istanbul. These case are therefore unlikely to overlap with those in Studies 31 and 145. Citation: Yassa M, Birol P, Mutlu AM, Tekin AB, Sandal K, Tug N. Lung Ultrasound Can Influence the Clinical Treatment of Pregnant Women With COVID-19 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 1]. J Ultrasound Med. 2020;10.1002/jum.15367. doi:10.1002/jum.15367

Study 145 – Case report from Turkey

A 25 year old woman with Covid-19 was delivered by Caesarean at 38 weeks (click here or 1-s2.0-S0952818020308953-main). The mother recovered and the baby tested negative. The hospital is not named but from author affiliations is likely Necmettin Erbakan University, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Konya, Turkey. The patient is different from the one in study 31Citation: Resul Yilmaz, FatmaKiliç, Şule Arican, Gülçin Hacibeyoğlu, Halime Süslü, Mustafa Koyuncu, Sema Tuncer Uzun. Anesthetic management for cesarean birth in pregnancy with the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. Available online 27 May 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinane.2020.109921

Study 144 – 2 (or 3) cases from Tokyo

Of 52 asymptomatic pregnant women screened for SARS-CoV-2 between April 6 and April 27, two tested positive and one, whose partner had Covid-19, was treated as if she was infected despite a negative test (click here or ijgo.13252). All three were delivered by Caesarean section, and their babies isolated. No babies were infected. Patients were cared for in Keio University Hospital, Tokyo. These are the first cases of Sars-Cov2 from Japan. Citation: Ochiai, D., Kasuga, Y., Iida, M., Ikenoue, S. and Tanaka, M. (2020), Universal screening for SARS‐CoV‐2 in asymptomatic obstetric patients in Tokyo, Japan. Int J Gynecol Obstet. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/ijgo.13252

Study 143 – 12 cases from Korea

Twelve women with COVID-19 were admitted for delivery between February 26th & to April 3rd 2020 (click here or kja-20204). Four birthed vaginally and 8 by Caesarean. Two babies were stillborn. All patients were cared for at Daegu Fatimal Hospital, Korea, (see Study 22 cited in paper). Although there is no explicit statement about whether the patient in Study 22 was included, the clinical details (age and gestation) differ, so it is likely that all 12  have not previously been reported.  Citation: Jeongmin Oh, Eunju Kim, Hyunkyum Kim, Sang-Ah Lee, Kyeong Hee Lee, Mi Hyae Yu, Jihyun An. Infection control of operating room and anesthesia for cesarean section during pandemic Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak in Daegu, the republic of Korea – 8 cases report. Korean J Anesthesiol DOI: https://doi.org/10.4097/kja.20204 [Epub ahead of print]. Published online June 5, 2020.

4th June update – studies 141 and 142 added

Study 142 – 61 cases from Boston Massachusetts

Of these 61 women with Covid-19 in pregnancy, cared for at a single academic medical centre, 21 were admitted to hospital, of whom 6 went to intensive care, of whom four were intubated (click here or Prevalence_and_Severity_of_Coronavirus_Disease.97338). No mothers died. The hospital is not named, but from author affiliations is likely Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mass. If so, these women probably differ from those reported in Study 129, and have not previously been reported. Citation: Goldfarb, Ilona Telefus MD, MPH; Clapp, Mark A. MD, MPH; Soffer, Marti D. MD, MPH; Shook, Lydia L. MD; Rushfirth, Katherine CNM, MSN; Edlow, Andrea G. MD, MSc; Boatin, Adeline A. MD, MPH; Kaimal, Anjali J. MD, MAS; Barth, William H. Jr MD; Bryant, Allison S. MD, MPH Prevalence and Severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Illness in Symptomatic Pregnant and Postpartum Women Stratified by Hispanic Ethnicity, Obstetrics & Gynecology: June 02, 2020 – Volume Publish Ahead of Print – Issue – doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004005

Study 141 – 201 women from the Netherlands Covid in pregnancy registry

The 22nd May update of NethOSS (click here), accessed 4 June 2020, contains the following. 7/176 women with brief additional details were admitted to intensive care. One mother died after prolonged admission and intubation as a result of pulmonary infection with multiple pulmonary emboli. 49 women have given birth, 16 by Caesarean. 124 pregnancies are ongoing. No baby has died. No babies were infected. Citation: See Studies 42, 46 & 120. Available here. Accessed 4 June 2020.

2nd June update – study 140 added

Study 140 – 42 cases from Barcelona

Forty two pregnant women with Covid-19 between March 13 & April 10 (click here or 1471-0528.16339). Eight required admission to ICU of whom 6 developed some features of pre-eclampsia, 4 requiring Caesarean, one of which was due to HELLP syndrome. No maternal or baby outcomes are reported but it is implied “after recovery from severe pneumonia, hypertensive therapy was no longer required in all cases” that all women recovered. The “tertiary care” hospital is not named but from author affiliations is likely to be Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. If so, these cases have not been previously reported. Citation: Mendoza, M., Garcia‐Ruiz, I., Maiz, N., Rodo, C., Garcia‐Manau, P., Serrano, B., Lopez‐Martinez, R.M., Balcells, J., Fernandez‐Hidalgo, N., Carreras, E. and Suy, A. (2020). Preeclampsia‐like syndrome induced by severe COVID‐19: a prospective observational study. BJOG. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.16339

1st June update – Studies 138 (HT Frederico Amedee Peret) & 139 added. Study 137 removed.

Study 139 – 13 cases in Washington state

Twelve women with Covid-19 were detected through targeted testing, and one by universal screening (click here or ciaa675). No separate clinical details given for the SARS-Cov2 positive women.  Patients were treated at the University of Washington Montlake Labor and Delivery Unit and Northwest Birth Center. They therefore likely overlap with Study 102. Citation: Sylvia M LaCourse, Alisa Kachikis, Michela Blain, LaVone E Simmons, James A Mays, Amber D Pattison, Carol C Salerno, Stephen A McCartney, Nicole M Kretzer, Rebecca Resnick, Rosemary L Shay, Leah M Savitsky, Anna C Curtin, Emily M Huebner, Kimberly K Ma, Shani Delaney, Carlos Delgado, Adrienne Schippers, Jeff Munson, Paul S Pottinger, Seth Cohen, Santiago Neme, Lori Bourassa, Andrew Bryan, Alex Greninger, Keith R Jerome, Alison C Roxby, Erica Lokken, Edith Cheng, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Jane Hitti. Low prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among pregnant and postpartum patients with universal screening in Seattle, Washington. Clinical Infectious Diseases ciaa675, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa675

Study 138 – 36 deaths among 484 pregnant women with Covid-19 in Brazil

Bulletin no 17 from the Brazilian Ministry of Health contains a special section on pregnant women with Covid-19 (click here or 2020-05-25—BEE17—Boletim-do-COE). The report is in Portugese. I’ve prepared an English translation of the pregnancy section using google translate Brazil MoH Covid 19 Bulletin 17 translation of pregnancy section. Citation: Ministério da Saúde, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. Boletim Epidemiológico Especial da COVID-19 no Brasil. Número do boletim 17.  25 May 2020.

31 May update – study 137 added.

Study 137 – A patient with Covid-19 & an ectopic pregnancy

A 37-year-old woman tested positive for SARS-Cov2 and presented two days later with an ectopic pregnancy (click here or Ectopic_Pregnancy_During_Coronavirus_Disease_2019.97340). The authors discuss treatment options but give no further clinical details. Although the report is ambiguous, it is conventional in educational medical reports to present real cases unless stated otherwise. From author affiliations the patient was likely cared for in South Dakota or Texas. Citation: Hansen, Keith A; Stovall, Dale W. Ectopic Pregnancy During Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), Obstet Gynecol: May 27, 2020 doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003995 Removed 1 June 2020 because the peer review correspondence available here or aog_136_2_2020_05_18_hansen_20-1079_sdc1 makes clear that the case is hypothetical.

30 May update – study 136 added.

Study 136 – 158 cases from New York

Of 158 pregnant women with Covid-19, 34 had moderate or severe disease, 9 received ICU or step down care and 1 required intubation. There were no deaths (click here or Andrikopoulou Green Symptoms_and_Critical_Illness_Among_Obstetric.97341). No baby outcomes reported. Patients were cared for at New York Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center, and at
New York-Presbyterian/Allen Hospital. Cases presumably overlap with those in studies 14, 27, 41 & 95. Citation: Andrikopoulou, Maria; Madden, Nigel; Wen, Timothy; Aubey, Janice J; Aziz, Aleha; Baptiste, Caitlin D;  Breslin, Noelle; D’Alton, Mary E; Fuchs, Karin; Goffman Dena; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia; Matseoane-Peterssen, Dara N; Miller, Russell S; Sheen, Jean-Ju; Simpson, Lynn L; Sutton, Desmond; Zork, Noelia; Friedman, Alexander M. Symptoms and Critical Illness Among Obstetric Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Infection, Obstet Gynecol May 27, 2020 – doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003996

28 May update – studies 133 to 135 added

Study 135 –  50 cases from New York

Among 307 asymptomatic women tested on admission in labour, 50 were SARS CoV-2 positive (click here or Buckley Mount Sinai AJOGMFM). The women were tested between April 4 & 15, 2020, at two institutions within Mount Sinai Health System in New York. They therefore probably overlap with those in Study 119. Citation: Buckley A, Bianco A, Stone J, Universal testing of patients and their support persons for COVID-19 when presenting for admission to Labor and Delivery within the Mount Sinai Health System, Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajogmf.2020.100147.

Study 134 – 125 cases from New York

These authors report further details on 12 pregnant women with severe Covid 19, out of 125 in total (click here or McLaren AJOG PIIS0002937820305676). 7 were delivered by Caesarean, 2 vaginally, and 3 remain undelivered. No mothers died, although one remains in hospital. This is an update on study 113, and again the hospital is presumably Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY. Citation: MCLAREN Jr. RA, LONDON V, ATALLAH F, MCCALLA S, HABERMAN S, FISHER N, STEIN JL, MINKOFF HL, Delivery For Respiratory Compromise Among Pregnant Women With COVID-19, Am J Obstet Gynecol (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.05.035.

Study 133 – 3 cases identified by screening in North Tuscany

By screening 533 women admitted for delivery for SARS-CoV2 between March 26th & April 1st in North Tuscany and Liguria, these authors identified 3 positives, who all gave birth without clinical problems (click here or PIIS0002937820305421). The women birthed in all the 6 hospitals of Azienda USL “Toscana Nord Ovest” (Tuscany), and Gaslini Children’s Hospital (Genoa, Liguria). They have therefore probably not previously been reported. Citation: Gagliardi L, Danieli R, Suriano G, Vaccaro A, Tripodi G, Rusconi F, Ramenghi LA, Universal SARS-CoV-2 testing of pregnant women admitted for delivery in two Italian regions. Am J Obstet Gynecol (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.05.017.

27 May update – study 132 added (HT @janevandis)

Study 132 – 42 cases from Connecticut

Of 782 women presenting for childbirth between April 2nd & 29th, 2020, 12 had already been diagnosed with Covid-19. Of the remainder 30/770 screened positive, 22 of whom were asymptomatic (click here orjama_campbell_2020_ld_200052). No clinical outcomes reported. No health care workers infected. Patients were cared for in 3 Yale New Haven Health hospitals in southern Connecticut. Citation: Katherine H. Campbell, Jean M. Tornatore, Kirsten E. Lawrence, Jessica L. Illuzzi, L. Scott Sussman, Heather S. Lipkind, Christian M. Pettker. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Among Patients Admitted for Childbirth in Southern Connecticut. JAMA. Published online May 26, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.8904

26 May update – studies 129 to 131 added.

Study 131 – Anti-SARS-Cov2 IgA antibodies in breast milk of recovering women.

The authors of this not yet peer-reviewed preprint report anti SARS-Cov2 IgA antibodies in breast milk samples from 15 women previously infected with SARS-Cov2 (click here or 2020.05.04.20089995v1.full). No clinical details. The authors, mainly from Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, report that they have recruited over 350 lactating women who have recovered from COVID-19.  Citation: Alisa Fox, Jessica Marino, Fatima Amanat, Florian Krammer, Jennifer Hahn-Holbrook, Susan Zolla-Pazner, Rebecca L Powell.  Evidence of a significant secretory-IgA-dominant SARS-CoV-2 immune response in human milk following recovery from COVID-19 doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.04.20089995

Study 130 – Case report from Amsterdam Medical Centre

A woman developed Covid-19 at 41 weeks gestation (Click here or ajh.25877). She also developed autoimmune throbocytopaenia. The baby was delivered by Caesarean. Citation: Man Wai Tang, Erfan Nur, Bart J. Biemond. Immune Thrombocytopenia during Pregnancy due to COVID-19. Am J Haematol. First published:23 May 2020 https://doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25877

Study 129 – 15 patients from Boston, Massachusetts

Of 213 admitted pregnant women screened by differential white blood count, 15 had Sars-Cov2 (click here or Duffy Green Lymphopenia_and_Severe_Acute_Respiratory_Syndrome.97345 (002)). Three required critical care for hypoxia. No other clinical details. From author affiliations patients were probably cared for in Beth Israel Deaconess Med Center, Harvard Med School, Boston, Mass. Citation: Duffy, Cassandra R. MD, MPH; Hart, Jessica M. MD; Modest, Anna M. PhD; Hacker, Michele R. ScD; Golen, Toni MD; Li, Yunping MD, MSc; Zera, Chloe MD, MPH; Shainker, Scott A. DO, MS; Mehrotra, Preeti MD, MPH; Zash, Rebecca MD; Wylie, Blair J. MD, MPH Lymphopenia and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection Among Hospitalized Obstetric Patients, Obstetrics & Gynecology: May 19, 2020 – Volume Publish Ahead of Print – Issue – doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003984

25 May update – studies 127-8 added.

Study 128 – 13 patients from North East Flanders

Of 470 pregnant women screened, 13 tested positive for SARS-Cov2, 8 were asymptomatic 4 had mild upper airway symptoms, and one respiratory symptoms. None developed severe disease (click here or Ceulemans Flanders uog.22099 (1)) The hospitals caring for the four patients are unnamed but shown on a map. Citation: Ceulemans, D., Thijs, I., Schreurs, A., Vercammen, J., Lannoo, L., Deprest, J., Richter, J., De Catte, L. and Devlieger, R. (2020), Screening for COVID ‐19 at childbirth: does it deliver?. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/uog.22099

Study 127 – SARS-CoV-2 in human breastmilk

Breast milk from two nursing mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 was tested. Samples from one woman were positive (click here or PIIS0140673620311818). Where the patients were cared for, was not reported. The authors came from Ulm in Germany. Citation: Rüdiger Groß, Carina Conzelmann, Janis A Müller, Steffen Stenger, Karin Steinhart, Frank Kirchhoff, Jan Münch. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in human breastmilk. Lancet. Published online May 21, 2020 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31181-8

24 May update

Study 126 – The ISARIC report in the BMJ

Among 20,133 patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 in the UK, 100/1033 (10%) women of childbearing age, were reported as being pregnant (click here or bmj.m1985.full). This is similar to the estimated proportion of pregnant women in the community. Pregnancy was not associated with mortality. This is an update of study 68. Citation: Docherty Annemarie B, Harrison Ewen M, Green Christopher A, Hardwick Hayley E, Pius Riinu, Norman Lisa et al. Features of 20 133 UK patients in hospital with covid-19 using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol: prospective observational cohort study. BMJ 2020; 369 :m1985

23 May update – studies 121-125 added

Study 125 – 60 cases from Madrid

Of 60 pregnant women with COVID-19 (click here or aogs.13921), 18 had pneumonia, 2 severely. One woman was admitted to ICU. No mothers died. Of 23 women delivered, 5 were by cesarean and 18 vaginally. Two delivered preterm. All 23 babies tested negative, and 21 were breast fed. Two babies were admitted to NICU for other reasons. No babies died. The patients were all were treated at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital Madrid, Spain from March 14th to April 14th, 2020. Citation: Pereira, A., Cruz‐Melguizo, S., Adrien, M., Fuentes, L., Marin, E. and Perez‐Medina, T. (2020), Clinical course of Coronavirus Disease‐2019 (COVID‐19) in pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/aogs.13921

Study 124 – 16 cases from Chicago

Fourteen patients delivered at term, 1 at 34 weeks, & 1 at 16-weeks (click here or aqaa089). No mothers admitted to ITU. No mother or baby deaths. No baby infections. The cases were identified  via a search of placental pathology records. Where the women were cared for is not recorded, but from author affiliation and a footnote probably includes Prentice Women’s Hospital, Northwestern Memorial Hospital and Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago. Citation: Elisheva D Shanes, Leena B Mithal, Sebastian Otero, Hooman A Azad, Emily S Miller, Jeffery A Goldstein. Placental Pathology in COVID-19, Am J Clin Pathol. aqaa089, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/aqaa089 Published: 22 May 2020

Study 123 – 16 cases from Michigan

Two patients received oxygen via nasal cannula, none were admitted to ITU. There were 8 vaginal births (one preterm) and 2 Caesareans. No babies were infected. Six women remain undelivered    (click here or Qadri Michigan Pregnancy affected by SARS CoV 2 infection a flash report…). Citation: Farnoosh Qadri & Federico Mariona (2020) Pregnancy affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection: a flash report from Michigan. J Mat-Fetal & Neonatal Med. DOI: 10.1080/14767058.2020.1765334

Study 122 – Response of Northwell Health to Covid-19 in pregnancy

A detailed description of how a large multi-hospital network in the centre of the New York pandemic organised itself to care for women with Covid-19 in pregnancy (click here or Rochelson [16193997 – Journal of Perinatal Medicine] New York). No patient numbers or details. Citation: Burton Rochelson, Michael Nimaroff, Adriann Combs, Benjamin Schwartz, Natalie Meirowitz, Nidhi Vohra, Victor R. Klein, Orlando Santandreu, Mitchell Kramer, Navid Mootabar, Eli Serur, Lisa Spiryda, Scott Berlin. Frank Chervenak. The Care of Pregnant Women During the COVID-19 Pandemic – Response of a Large Health System in Metropolitan New York. J Perinat Med. 2020 May 20;/j/jpme.ahead-of-print/jpm-2020-0175/jpm-2020-0175.xml. doi: 10.1515/jpm-2020-0175. Online ahead of print.

Study 121 – One week’s screening in Los Angeles.

The Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California screened 82 pregnant women over a one week period (click here or Severe_Acute_Respiratory_Syndrome_Coronavirus_2.97344). None of the 80 asymptomatic women tested positive but one of two symptomatic ones did. No further details reported. Citation: Mariam Naqvi, Richard M Burwick, John A Ozimek, Naomi H Greene, Sarah J Kilpatrick, Melissa S Wong. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Universal Testing Experience on a Los Angeles Labor and Delivery Unit, Obstetrics & Gynecology: May 19, 2020 – Volume Publish Ahead of Print – Issue – doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003987

21 May update – studies 116-120 added.

Study 120 – 191 women from the Netherlands Covid-19 registry

This 14 May update of NethOSS (click here), accessed 21 May 2020, contains the following. 6/156 women with brief additional details were admitted to intensive care; one remains there. One mother had a molar pregnancy and one a miscarriage. 47 women have given birth, 16 by Caesarean. 109 pregnancies are ongoing. No mother or baby has died. No babies were infected. Citation: See Studies 42 and 46. Available here. Accessed 21 May. Note: we probably missed some intermediate updates from this registry.

Study 119 – 24 cases identified by screening in New York

24/155 asymptomatic women screened for SARS-COV-2 prior to a planned delivery, tested positive (click here or Bianco Green Testing_of_Patients_and_Support_Persons_for.97342). All their newborns were tested and none were positive. No maternal outcomes were reported. The patients were all cared for in the Mount Sinai Health system between April 4th and 15th. From author affiliations this was Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital. These cases may therefore overlap with some in study 86. Citation: Bianco, Angela; Buckley, Ayisha B; Overbey, Jessica; Smilen, Scott; Wagner, Brian; Dinglas, Cheryl; Loudon, Holly; Garely, Alan; Brodman, Michael; Stone, Joanne. Testing of Patients and Support Persons for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Infection Before Scheduled Deliveries, Obstetrics & Gynecology: May 19, 2020 – Volume Publish Ahead of Print – Issue – doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003985

Study 118 – a maternal death from New York

A 36-year-old woman developed Covid-19 at 37 weeks gestation (click here or Vallejo Green A_Postpartum_Death_Due_to_Coronavirus_Disease_2019.97350). Within three hours of admission she required intubation and Caesarean, and she died within 36 hours. The baby tested negative and survived. The hospital is not named, and she was not transferred. From the author affiliations it was either Dept OBGYN, Urban Health Plan, Inc., Bronx, or Division of Maternal-Fetal Med, Dept OBGYN, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York. Citation: Victoria Vallejo, John G. Ilagan. A Postpartum Death Due to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States. Obstet Gynecol 2020;00:1–4 DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003950

Study 117 – 77 cases from 12 Italian hospitals

From Feb 23 to March 28th, 14/77 women with Covid-19 were severely affected, and one required ECMO (click here or Savasi Green Clinical_Findings_and_Disease_Severity_in.97347). 57 gave birth, 22 by Caesarean. Four newborns tested positive for SARS-COV-2, but none had symptoms. 20 pregnancies are ongoing. No mothers or babies died. The 12 hospitals L. Sacco (Milan), Mangiagalli (Milan), S. Gerardo MBBM Foundation (Monza), Papa Giovanni XXIII (Bergamo), and San Matteo (Pavia) and the hospitals of Padua, Florence, Lecco, Trento, Modena, Seriate and Piacenza. These are the same hospitals as studies 33 & 64. The patients probably overlap. Citation: Savasi, Valeria M. MD, PhD; Parisi, Francesca MD, PhD; Patanè, Luisa MD; Ferrazzi, Enrico MD; Frigerio, Luigi MD, PhD; Pellegrino, Antonio MD; Spinillo, Arsenio MD; Tateo, Saverio MD; Ottoboni, Mariacristina MD; Veronese, Paola MD, PhD; Petraglia, Felice MD; Vergani, Patrizia MD; Facchinetti, Fabio MD; Spazzini, Donata MD; Cetin, Irene MD, PhD Clinical Findings and Disease Severity in Hospitalized Pregnant Women With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), Obstetrics & Gynecology: May 19, 2020 – Volume Publish Ahead of Print – Issue – doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003979

Study 116 – A “universal testing in pregnancy” series from Chicago

Northwestern Memorial Hospital, tested a consecutive series of 635 pregnant women admitted between April 8th & 28th, 2020. Of these 23 (3.6%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, of whom 10 (44%) were asymptomatic on presentation (click here or Miller NorthWestern Clinical_Implications_of_Universal_Severe_Acute.9734…). No maternal or baby outcomes were reported. Citation: Miller, Emily S. MD, MPH; Grobman, William A. MD, MBA; Sakowicz, Allie MS; Rosati, Jessica MSN, RN; Peaceman, Alan M. MD Clinical Implications of Universal Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Testing in Pregnancy, Obstetrics & Gynecology: May 19, 2020 – Volume Publish Ahead of Print – Issue – doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003983

20 May update Studies 113 (HT Fred Peret. We’d missed it!) to 115 added

Study 115 – Case report of Covid-19 & severe pre-eclampsia

A 26-year-old with Covid-19 at 37 weeks gestation also had severe pre-eclampsia (click here or AJOGMFM-20-1073 ). She was treated with magnesium sulphate and delivered vaginally. The baby tested negative. Both recovered. From author affiliations likely cared for at Stanford University Hospital. Citation: Joudi N, Henkel A, Lock WS, Lyell D, Preeclampsia Treatment in SARSCoV-2, American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajogmf.2020.100146.

Study 114 – 22 women from Bergamo, Italy

Of 22 women with Covid-19 in pregnancy two neonates tested positive, one born vaginally and one by caesarean. Both did well. Their placental histology is described (click here or AJOGMF-20-1112). No other mother or baby details are given. The women were cared for between March 5, & April 21, 2020 at Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo, in the Lombardy region of Italy, so the women were probably also reported in study 32 & study 64. Citation: Patanè L, Morotti D, Giunta MR, Sigismondi C, Piccoli MG, Frigerio L, Mangili G, Arosio M, Cornolti G, Vertical transmission of COVID-19: SARS-CoV-2 RNA on the fetal side of the placenta in pregnancies with COVID-19 positive mothers and neonates at birth, American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajogmf.2020.100145.

Study 113 – 68 SARS-Cov-2 positive pregnant women  from New York

46 had Covid-19 and a further 22 asymptomatic women tested positive for SARS-Cov-2 (click here or s-0040-1712164). 12 women had severe disease, one requiring ventilation. There was one intrauterine death at 17 weeks but otherwise no mothers or babies died. All babies tested negative. 12 pregnancies are ongoing.  Women were cared for at a tertiary care hospital in Brooklyn, from March 15 to April 15, 2020. From author affiliations probably Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY. If so, they have not been previously reported.  Citation: Viktoriya London, Rodney McLaren Jr., Fouad Atallah, Catherine Cepeda, Sandra McCalla, Nelli Fisher, Janet L. Stein, Shoshana Haberman, Howard Minkoff. The Relationship between Status at Presentation and Outcomes among Pregnant Women with COVID-19. Am J Perinatol. DOI https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1712164. ISSN 0735-1631. Online April 27, 2020

19 May update – studies 108 to 112 added.

Study 112 – Case report from Nashville, Tennessee

A 35-year-old developed Covid-19 at 22 weeks gestation requiring intubation & ventilation (click here or  1-s2.0-S2214911220300515-main). She recovered and the pregnancy is ongoing. U Tennessee Health Science Center has not previously reported cases. Citation: J. Anderson, J. Schauer, S. Bryant, et al., The use of convalescent plasma therapy and remdesivir in the successful management of a critically ill obstetric patient with novel coronavirus 2019 infection: A case report. Case Rep Women’s Health (2020), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crwh.2020.e00221

Study 111 – Case report from Livingstone, New Jersey

A 39-year-old woman, with IVF twins developed Covid-19 at 27 weeks of gestation (click here or 1-s2.0-S2214911220300503-main). She required ventilation and then an emergency classical Cesarean section a the bedside due to rapid deterioration.  She recovered. One twin was infected, but both survived. She was cared for in Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, New Jersey, which has not previously reported a case.  Citation:  H. Mehta, S. Ivanovic, A. Cronin, et al., Novel coronavirus related acute respiratory distress syndrome in a patient with twin pregnancy: A case report. Case Rep Women’s Health (2020), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crwh.2020.e00220

Study 110 – Case report from Thailand

A 43-year-old with mild Covid-19 at 18 weeks gestation (click here or Panichaya Thailand PIIS0301211520303134). Amniocentesis done a week earlier showed trisomy 21, & the pregnancy was terminated. Placental & fetal swabs were negative. Citation: Panichaya P, Thaweerat W, Uthaisan J. Prolonged viral persistence in COVID-19 second trimester pregnant patient, Eur J Obstet & Gynecology & Reprod Biol (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.05.030

Study 109 – 4 women from Parma, Italy

Four women with Covid-19 recovered and later delivered healthy term neonates (click here or Acta BioMed Parma 9743-Article Text-49126-2-10-20200514). They were cared for in Parma Hospital, in the Emilia-Romagna (not Lombardy) region of Italy. Citation: Serafina Perrone, Michela Deolmi, Maurizio Giordano, Tiziana D’Alvano, Lucia Gambini, Mara Corradi, Tiziana Frusca, Tullio Ghi, Susanna Esposito. Report of a series of healthy term newborns from convalescent mothers with COVID-19. Acta Biomed 2020; Vol. 91, N. 2: 251-255 DOI: 10.23750/abm.v91i2.9743

Study 108 – 27 cases from Central Hospital of Wuhan

These 27 women with Covid-19 in pregnancy included 4 early pregnancies. They delivered 24 babies (1 set of twins) (click here or Yang Wuhan arpa.2020-0232-sa). They were cared for at “Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan” between Jan 20 & Mar 19, 2020.  Assuming this is Central Hospital of Wuhan, grid.440160.7 these cases likely overlap with studies 39 and 73. They are probably also included in studies 55 & 57. Citation: Hui Yang, Bin Hu, Sudong Zhan, Li-ye Yang, Guoping Xiong. Effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on pregnant women and their infants: A retrospective study in Wuhan, China. Arch Pathol Lab Med. In press. doi: 10.5858/arpa.2020-0232-SA

18 May update – studies 105 to 107 added

Study 107 – Maternal death in Birmingham, UK

A 29-year-old woman with severe Covid-19 was delivered by Caesarean section at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital at 31 weeks gestation (click here or Mat Death Bham BrJH bjh.16849). The baby tested negative and is doing well. The mother initially improved and was extubated on day 2 post natal. However on day 6 she developed basilar artery thrombosis, and she died on day 7. Case presumably included in study 92 UKOSS. Citation: Ahmed, I., Azhar, A., Eltaweel, N. and Tan, B.K. (2020), First Covid‐19 maternal mortality in the UK associated with thrombotic complications. Br J Haematol. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/bjh.16849

Study 106 – 2 cases from Reading, UK

Two women with severe Covid-19 were treated at the Royal Berkshire Hospital (click here or Cooke Reading PIIS0301211520302761 (002). Both were preterm (28+4, 28+6 days) and required Caesarean for deteriorating maternal condition. Both mothers recovered. One baby had a perforated bowel but both eventually recovered. Presumably both cases were included in study 92 UKOSS. Citation: Cooke WR, Billett A, Gleeson S, Jacques A, Place K, Siddall J, Walden A, Soulsby K. SARS-CoV-2 infection in very preterm pregnancy: experiences from two cases, Eur J Obstet Gynecol & Reprod Biol (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.05.025

Study 105 – 12 cases from from Hospital Pedro Hispano, Portugal

All 123 pregnant women admitted to Hospital Pedro Hispano in Porto between March 25 & April 15 were tested for SARS-CoV-2. 12 were positive, of whom 11 were asymptomatic, 10 have delivered, 6 by
cesarean section and 4 vaginally. There was one set of twins. There were no maternal complications and all the newborns tested negative (click here or Doria N Portugal PIIS0301211520303122 (002) This series may include the cases in study 74 & study 94. Citation: D´oria M, Peixinho C, Laranjo M, Varejao AM, Silva PT. Covid-19 during pregnancy: a case series from an universally tested population from the north of Portugal. Eur J Obstet Gynecol & Reprod Biol (2020). doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.05.029

16 May update – Study 104 added

Study 104 – ICNARC 15th May update

The 15th May ICNARC update (click here or ICNARC COVID-19 report 2020-05-15.pdf) contains 23 currently, and 32 recently, pregnant women critically ill with Covid-19. Of these 9 and 16 respectively had received advanced respiratory support.

Study 103 – Case report from Toronto, Ontario

A 40-year-old woman developed Covid-19 at 35 weeks gestation and was delivered by Caesarean (click here or cmaj.200821.full). The baby tested positive on the day of birth, breast fed and had some minor feeding difficulties, but eventually thrived. Citation: Maksim Kirtsman, Yenge Diambomba, Susan M. Poutanen, Ann K. Malinowski, Evangelia Vlachodimitropoulou, W. Tony Parks, Laura Erdman, Shaun K. Morris, Prakesh S. Shah. Probable congenital SARS-CoV-2 infection in a neonate born to a woman with active SARS-CoV-2 infection  CMAJ 2020. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.200821; early-released May 14, 2020 (HT Jon Dorling & Don Sharkey).

Study 102 – 46 patients from Washington State, USA

Of 46 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2, 43 were symptomatic, 7 hospitalized, 6 categorised as severe, and 1 admitted to ICU (click here or Lokken-AJOG). Eight women delivered, 5 vaginal, 3 Caesarean. All mothers survived. There were 7 livebirths & one stillbirth at 38 weeks. That fetus tested negative.  One baby was preterm. No further baby details were given. 38 pregnancies are ongoing. The women were cared for in 16 hospitals: University of Washington Hospital system (Montlake, Northwest, & Harborview campuses), Swedish Medical Center (First Hill, Ballard, Issaquah and Edmonds campuses), University of Washington Valley Medical Center, MultiCare Health System (Auburn Medical Center, Covington Medical Center, Tacoma General Hospital, Good Samaritan Hospital, Valley Hospital and Deaconess Hospital), Evergreen Health Medical Center, and PeaceHealth-St. Joseph’s Medical Center. Citation: Erica M. LOKKEN et al. Clinical Characteristics of 46 Pregnant Women with a SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Washington State. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020 May 19 doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2020.05.031 [Epub ahead of print] PMCID: PMC7234933 PMID: 32439389

Study 101 – Case report from Tabriz, Iran

A 33-year-old woman with severe Covid-19 at 34 weeks gestation was treated at Imam Reza hospital of Tabriz (click here or Taghizadieh Iran 1-s2.0-S2213007120302306-main). She required intubation, ventilation, renal dialysis & delivery by Caesarean. The baby tested negative & was in good health. The mother remains intubated but is recovering. The clinical details differ sufficiently from the two women who survived in study 67 to make it likely that this is a previously unreported case. Citation: Taghizadieh A, Mikaeili H, Ahmadi M, Valizadeh H, Acute kidney injury in pregnant women following SARS-CoV-2 infection: A case report from Iran, Respiratory Medicine Case Reports (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmcr.2020.101090.

Jim Thornton, Keelin O’Donoghue & Kate Walker

The risk of dying from Covid-19 in pregnancy

May 3, 2020

For the facts click here.  This is my interpretation.

It’s not zero, 13/73 (18%) of pregnant women with Covid-19, whose cases made it into the newspapers, died (click here). But this must be an overestimate. Covid may not have caused all the deaths, and there will be selective reporting.

In the scientific papers 16/367 (4%) of women died (click here). These data should be more reliable, in that we can can be confident, at least for the women reported in detail from Iran (S67 & S70), that Covid-19 caused the deaths. The other 7 cases from Brazil and Mexico (S66) include less detail, and some were identified only from newspaper reports, so the cause of death must be in some doubt. There is also a more serious problem. All the deaths were reported in studies of maternal death due to Covid-19. Mothers who survived in the relevant regions were not reported. This must also be an overestimate.

Restricting analysis to the the larger series probably gives a better estimate. In Wuhan 0/109, Netherlands 0/91, Lombardy 0/42, NY Presbyterian/Columbia 0/33 mothers died. In total that’s zero deaths out of 275 pregnant women with Covid-19.

But the death rate can’t be zero. Some women really did die, and many mothers in the larger series were seriously ill and nearly died. In the Whuhan series (S55 here) 9/109 pregnant women had severe disease (hypoxaemia) although only one required ventilation. In the Netherlands 5/91 (S41, here), Lombardy 7/42 (S32 here), & NY Presbyterian/Columbia 2/33 (S41 here), needed intensive care. That’s 14/166 (8%) in total. There have been other reports of pregnant women who were seriously ill (S69, S50, S28, S19, S3 here).

Mortality for non-pregnant people, age 16-49, with Covid-19, who needed intensive care is 24% (ICNARC).  If pregnant women on intensive care had the same mortality, this would correspond to a 2% overall mortality. Not zero. But significantly lower than the biased newspaper rate of 18% or the biased “all scientific reports” rate of 4%.

A two percent maternal mortality rate from Covid-19 is my best guess.

Let’s put this in context. 98% of women who develop Covid-19 in pregnancy will survive. But the background risk of mothers dying in pregnancy these days is only 0.01%. This means the risk of a mother dying, if she gets Covid-19, may be 200 times greater than the background risk in pregnancy.

Covid-19 is a serious disease. Don’t underestimate it.

Jim Thornton

Edited noon 3 May.

 

Covid-19 & pregnancy – navigation page

April 21, 2020

Ripe-tomato.org has been collecting the primary sources about Covid-19 in pregnancy for a month. All regularly updated. No opinion, no reviews, no guidelines. Just the primary data sources.

For the first 100 scientific reports (click here). Duplicates and overlaps noted. Curated by Jim Thornton, Keelin O’Donoghue & Kate Walker.

For the second 100 scientific reports(click here). Regularly updated.

For the first 100 news items describing cases of Covid-19 in pregnancy reported by traditional newspapers & broadcasters (click here).

For the second 100 news items (click here). Regularly updated.

Summary totals for non-overlapping cases here. Updated to 12 May, when UKOSS registry first reported. Corrections only after 12 May.

Help to disambiguate Chinese hospitals & universities here.

Covid-19 in pregnancy registries, & similar, here.

For my best estimate of the maternal mortality rate with Covid-19 (click here).

Jim Thornton

Covid-19 & pregnancy – registries

April 19, 2020

Registries & regional data

A list of “Covid-19 & pregnancy” registries, as well as of some regional groups who have reported data.

Both are likely to be more representative than hospital-based series (click here), or news reports (click here), although they will overlap. Updated 24 June.

National Registries

1 UKOSS – The United Kingdom Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS) Pandemic COVID-19 in pregnancy registry (click here, & registered here) is collecting cases via each NHS Trust’s local UKOSS reporter. It includes early pregnancy, including miscarriage & ectopic pregnancy.

2. COVI-PREG – (click here) Based in Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland.

3. PRIORITY – (click here), the Pregnancy Coronavirus Outcomes Registry (PRIORITY), coordinated through the University of California is collecting both confirmed and suspected cases. Doctors may refer patients. Patients may refer themselves. By 16 April, 300 participants had been enrolled.

4. ROI COVID-19 – The Republic of Ireland Covid-19 registry (click here).

5. NethOSS – the Netherlands Covid-19 registry (click here). To register cases email info@nethoss-perined.nl. By 12 April 2020, 107 reports had been received, 91 with brief, and 50 with extensive additional information.

6. CHOPAN – The Australian Registry. CHOPAN (Coronavirus Health Outcomes in Pregnancy & Newborns)  – click here, or here to register.

7. National Health Commission of China – Not strictly a registry, but on 17th April a group using this source reported all cases of Covid-19 in pregnancy seen in any hospital in Wuhan between December 8, 2019 & March 20, 2020 (click here). These data supersede all previous reports from Wuhan hospitals for women admitted before March 20.

8. ItOSS -The Italian registry – Click here.

9. The INational Registry of Pregnant Women with COVID-19 in India. (click here) Contact: Dr Rahul Gajbhiye. Dept Clinical Research ICMR-National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, J M Street, Parel, Mumbai email: gajbhiyer@nirrh.res.in

Other registries

1. PANCOVID – Pregnancy And Neonatal outcomes for women with COVID-19 (click here). Run by Imperial College London and University of Wales.

2. US CDC – United States, Centres for Disease Control (CDC) includes pregnancy in its Covid-19 report forms. This report here, up to March 28, included 143 pregnant women.

3. ICNARC – The UK Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre (ICNARC) includes some pregnant women. For their 4 April 2020 report, which included eight pregnant or recently pregnant women, click here.   Data updated 17 April.

4. ObsCovid – A UK registry, supported by RCOG, RCM, OAA & RCoA, for maternity healthcare workers to record and follow-up encounters with mothers with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 (click here).

5. Santé Publique France – Reports Covid-19 admissions to intensive care in France (click here, report in French). By 16 April, 13 pregnant women had been admitted to intensive care. None had died.

6. The Traditional, Complementary & Integrative Health & Medicine COVID-19 Support Registry (click here) includes a data field on pregnancy.

7. COVID-19 ICU registry – Click here. A Multicenter International Data Repository of patients admitted to ICU. Hosted by Massachussets General Hospital.  It will include pregnant women.

8. INTERCOVID – Click here. A prospective case control study using the centres who participated in the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

9. IRCEP – International Registry of Coronavirus Exposure in Pregnancy (IRCEP) (click here). Not yet opened. Based in the TH Chan School of Public health, Harvard University.

10. COV-PREG-COAG – run by the International Society of Thombosis & Haemostasis. The International Registry on Pregnancy and COVID-19 Associated Coagulopathy and Thrombosis (COV-PREG-COAG) can be accessed here.

11. PeriCovid – Understanding COVID-19 infection in pregnant women and their babies. Run by St George’s, London. Protocol here.

12. COVID-19 New Mum Study – (click here).

13. Mother to Baby Covid-19 in pregnancy study.  (click here). Open to women in US or Canada. Also recruiting breastfeeding women with  COVID-19 .

14. COVID Mothers Study – (click here). Mothers who had Covid-19 in prengnancy or whose babies had it under the age of one year are eligible to participate in this anonymous registry.

Regional Reports

1. The COVID-19 Obstetrics Task Force, Lombardy, reported 42 cases in pregnancy from six regional hubs (including Milan, Brescia, Bergamo, Monza, & Pavia) up to March 20th (click here).

Jim Thornton

Disambiguating Chinese hospitals reporting Covid-19 in pregnancy

April 13, 2020

Revised 16 April 2020. Details at foot of post*

The city of Wuhan has a population of 12M, about the same as London, and Hubei, the province in which it sits, 58M, about the same as the UK.  Sorting out the various hospitals and universities where reported cases of Covid-19 in pregnancy were treated is no easy matter, especially for non-Chinese speakers, and for papers where affiliation names have been translated in idiosyncratic ways.

But it needs to be done because some authors have submitted the same manuscripts to multiple journals, included previously reported cases in new case series without making this clear, or reported different aspects of the same cases in multiple papers (click here). The following list has been created from the primary sources listed here, using the disambiguator (click here) provided by the Global Research Identifier Database GRID (click here).  Hospitals in bold are those from which patients with Covid-19 in pregnancy have been reported. Study numbers refer to the primary sources listed here.

Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University (Study 1, 13). GRID ID grid.413247.7 No aliases.

Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan grid.33199.31 has three affiliated hospitals.

Huazhong University of Science and Technology Hospital grid.488485.d It seems likely that this includes the Maternal & Child Hospital of Hubei Province (Studies 8, 17, 30 & 38) (see below).

Tongji Hospital (studies  11, 15) grid.412793.a

Wuhan Union Hospital (studies 2a, 2b, 2c, 5*, 6, ) grid.412839.5

First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University (study 3*) grid.412615.5 is in Guangzhou, a port city 1,000km south of Wuhan, near Hong Kong. See 16 April revision.*

First Affiliated Hospital Zhejiang University (studies 4 & 9)  grid.452661.2 Aliases Zheda Hospital, Zhejiang Provincial First Hospital. This is in the City of Hangzhou near Shanghai, about 700 km east of Wuhan

Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University (Studies 6a, 10, 12, 36, 37, 40) grid.412632.0 Aliases, People’s Hospital of Wuhan University, Hubei Provincial People’s Hospital, First Affiliated Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan University Renmin Hospital, Hubei General Hospital.

Eastern Hospital of Wuhan University People’s Hospital (Study 6a) is not listed on the GRID database. It is likely that this is an alias of Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University above.

Qingdao Women and Children’s Hospital, Qingdao (Study 7) is not listed on the GRID database. However, Quingdao is a port city 1,100 km north east of Wuhan.

Wuhan Children’s Hospital, in Wuhan, (study 8) is not listed on the GRID database but disambiguates to Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan grid.33199.31 above. It seems likely to be an alias of the Maternal & Child Hospital of Hubei Province itself part of Huazhong University of Science and Technology Hospital.

Shenzhen 2nd People’s Hospital (study 16) is not listed on the GRID database. Shenzen is a city in the south of China near Hong Kong

Maternal & Child Hospital of Hubei Province, Tongji Medical College (Studies 17, 30 & 38) is not listed on the GRID database. However, according to Wikipedia it is the 10th clinical college/hospital associated with Tongji Medical College, which itself disambiguates to Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan grid.33199.31 (above). The Wikipedia link also goes to the same point on the map as Huazhong University of Science and Technology Hospital, in the City of Wuhan, but geographically distinct both from Tongji Hospital and from Wuhan Union Hospital. It seems likely that the Maternal & Child Hospital is part of Huazhong University of Science and Technology Hospital grid.488485.d.

Affiliated Infectious Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou grid.429222.d (Study 19). Suzhou is a city near Shanghai about 700 km east of Wuhan

Beijing YouAn Hospital (study 34) grid.414379.c

Central Hospital of Wuhan (Study 39) grid.440160.7

*Revision 16 April 2020

Patients included in studies 1 and 13 both came from Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University. This has been corrected.

The sources of the patients in Study 3 “patients admitted to hospitals outside of Wuhan […] 3 patients from Zhejiang, 3 from other cities of Hubei and 1 each from Fujian, Shanxi, Beijing, Guangdong, Jiangxi, Heilongjiang and Anhui”, and in Study 5 “mothers […] in 5 hospitals in Hubei from January 20 to February 5, 2020”, were misclassified as coming from a single hospital in the first version of this post.

Jim Thornton

Covid-19 in Pregnancy – News Reports

April 5, 2020

Cases reported by traditional media – 1-100

There’s plenty of fake news on Facebook, Twitter & Reddit, but traditional journalism still counts for something. Reported fact in established newspapers, or by traditional broadcasters, requires not only that someone told it to a journalist, but also that the journalist did at least some verification. All cases below have been reported by a traditional newspaper or broadcaster, and my summaries are limited to the facts as reported. Although some cases, notably 3 and 9, have appeared in hundreds of media outlets, I’ve avoided duplicates. Cases may overlap with scientific reports, and are probably biased to reports in English. See also primary scientific reports here. Reports are in reverse order, most recent first. I will update. For reports 101 onward (click here).

Warning. The partners of Prime Ministers and professional footballers are over-represented in this small series! It is almost certain that deaths are too.

100. Rachel Bailey from Shelby County, Alabama, was 5-months pregnant when she developed Covid-19 (click here). She is now 30 weeks and recovering. The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 6 May

99. Patient 765, a 20-year-old woman from Padrayanpura, in the late stage of pregnancy, tested positive on 8 May at Vani Villas Women and Children Hospital in Bangalore, Karnataka, India (click here). No further details. Report 9 May.

98. Florette Johnson from Florida, had Covid-19 around term. She had a vaginal birth but later required ventilation (click here). The baby was isolated. Both mother and baby are recovering. Report 9 May.

97. Monique Cook from Atlanta, Georgia, developed Covid-19 at 8 months gestation with twins. She was delivered by Caesarean section at Piedmont Henry hospital on 22 March, and transferred to Piedmont Atlanta hospital for ECMO treatment (click here). She was extubated after 5 days and is now recovering at home.  The twins have also been discharged. Report 8 May

9 May update

96. Gabriela Maia, the wife of Max Johnson, the half brother of British prime minister Boris Johnson, is pregnant, and has Covid-19 (click here). She is recovering. Report 28 March.

95. A baby born at 30 weeks gestation on April 3, in Natal, Brazil, tested positive for SARS- Cov2, and died age 4 days. The mother had respiratory symptoms but her test result was not yet available (click here). The authorities cannot confirm if the infection caused the death. Report 10 April.

8 May update – Cases 86-94 added.

94. Terra Eubanks, a pregnant nurse at Baton Rouge General Hospital in Louisiana, got Covid-19. She recovered (click here). The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 7 May.

93. Johana Rocio Mendoza Chancay, age 40, from Union City, New Jersey, was 26 weeks gestation when she developed Covid-19. She was transferred from Hoboken University Medical Center to Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital in New Brunswick where she gave birth by Caesarean section on March 30th (click here). Her daughter Zion weighed 1lb 13oz. The mother was ventilated and in a coma until April 13. Both recovered. Report 22 April.

92. An unnamed pregnant woman (referred to as P652) had an inconclusive Covid-19 test result at Dr Lal Path Labs in Delhi on 2nd May. The result was interpreted at positive and the woman was nursed on a Covid-19 ward. On May 6, a test at Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute’s Virus Research and Diagnostic Laboratory was declared negative. A third test at the National Institute of Virology’s Bengaluru Field Unit was also negative (click here). Report 8 May.

91. An unnamed pregnant woman is among five Lincolnshire police staff who have tested positive for coronavirus (click here). Report 5 May.

90. Katherine Dawson, aged 36, developed Covid-19 at 32 weeks gestation. She was delivered by Caesarean section at Blackpool Victoria Hospital on 1 April. Her condition deteriorated and she required artificial ventilation (click here). The baby, Ruby, was reported to be infected at birth. Mother and baby recovered, and were discharged on 6 May. Report 6 May.

89. An unnamed  28-year-old women, recovered from Covid-19 and was discharged from Symbiosis Hospital in her 37th week of pregnancy (click here). Report 24 April.

88. An unnamed five-month pregnant woman tested positive for coronavirus at the Pune Municipal Corporation’s Sonawane hospital (click here). She was transferred to Bharati Hospital. Report 14 April.

86. & 87. An unnamed 25-year-old pregnant woman with Covid-19 gave birth by Caesarean section on April 20 at the Sassoon General Hospital in Pune, India, to a healthy boy. Another unnamed woman with Covid-19 delivered by Caesarean section the same day in Aurangabad district civil hospital (click here). Neither baby was infected. Report April 20.

7 May update – cases 80 to 85 added.

85. An unnamed woman with Covid-19 gave birth in Nagaur in Rajustan, India, on April 23 to a baby who also tested positive (click here). Eight other pregnant women from the Ramganj area also tested positive. Report 24 April.

84. An unnamed pregnant woman who had recovered from Covid19 gave birth at her home in Kalnad, Kerala, India after being refused hospital admission (click here). She was later treated at Kannur Medical College Hospital in Pariyaram, before transfer to the General Hospital in Kasaragod for observation. The outcome was not reported. Report 4 May

82 & 83. An unnamed 35-year-old woman from Shangus in south Kashmir’s Anantnag district had Covid-19 at the time of her birth at the SKIMS Medical College Hospital Bemina, Jammu & Kashmir, India (click here). No further details are given. The same report notes that two other pregnant women “have died and nearly 10 have got infected with coronavirus in past two weeks” at the same hospital. It is not clear whether the two women who died had Covid 19. Elsewhere in the same report another woman, Firdousa Javaid is reported to have tested positive in a different maternity hospital, Lalla Ded. Report 6 May.

81. Melissa Brewer from Mountain Green, Utah, whose baby is due in May 2020, had minimal symptoms but tested positive for SARS-CoV2 (click here). The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 5 May.

80. Molly Baldwin, age 28, from Fitchburg, Massachusetts, developed Covid-19 at 33 weeks gestation (click here). She is self-quarantining at home. The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 5 May

5 May update – cases 78 & 79 added

79. An unnamed baby developed Covid-19 at age three months and was treated at Baba Raghav Das Medical College, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh between April 12 and 26th (click here). His mother was SARS-COV-2 negative and continued to breast feed him. The baby recovered and the mother remained negative. Report 5 May.

78. An unnamed woman with Covid-19 gave birth at Aurangabad Civil Hospital in Maharashtra, India (click here). The baby was not infected. Report 5 May.

4 May update – cases 74 to 77 added.

77. Sarita [a pseudonym] from Los Angeles was asymptomatic, but tested positive for SARS-COV-2 during her pregnancy (click here). Her baby, born mid April, was isolated from her and tested negative. At four days of age the baby suffered some sort of respiratory arrest, but recovered. Report 1st May

76. Silvia Leroy, age 35, developed Covid-19 and was transferred from Brookdale, her local hospital, to Mount Sinai hospital in Manhattan (click here). She was on a ventilator for a week, but appeared to be recovering, when she had a cardiac arrest. Her baby, Esther, was delivered by Caesarean section. Sylvia is alive but reported to have brain damage. Report 29 April.

75. Kim Stidworthy, age 25, from New Mexico was 20 weeks gestation when she developed Covid-19 (click here). She spent four days in hospital. The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 1st May.

74. Tamekia Melong, age 37, from Baldwin, Long Island, New York is pregnant and developed Covid-19 in March (click here). The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 3rd May

30 April update – Cases 71 to 73 added. Also up to 10 pregnant women had tested positive for corona virus in the Rotunda Hospital in Dublin (click here) by 1 April. Report 1 April.

73. Alysha Ramos, age 29, pregnant with Covid-19, is in prison in Valparaiso, Indiana (click here & here). Reports 5 & 23 April.

72. Veronica Markley, age 37, from Colorado had Covid-19 at 30 weeks gestation (click here). She was intubated and put on a ventilator at Presbyterian/St. Luke’s Medical Center in Denver, but is recovering. The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 27 April

71. Ashley Duque, age 33, from San Diego developed Covid-19 at 17 weeks gestation (click here). She required 4 days ventilation but is recovering. The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 10 April.

29 April update – Cases 63 to 70 added.  Case 9 – Carrie Symonds, the partner of British Prime Minister Boris Johnson, who gave birth to a healthy baby boy on April 29th, updated. Case 61, an accidental duplicate, deleted. Maternal and baby deaths highlighted in bold.

70. Jennifer Laubach from Clarkston, Michigan, gave birth to twins at 32 weeks at Troy Beaumont Hospital. The babies were isolated because she had symptoms and her partner had Covid-19. She later tested positive (click here). She and the twins recovered. Report 29 April.

69. Abigail Jacobs, age 29, from Kahnawake near Montreal, Canada, developed Covid-19 symptoms in mid March at 24 weeks gestation (click here). Her first test was negative, but a repeat on March 29 was positive. She self-isolated and has recovered. The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 18 April.

68. An unnamed woman from Charlotte, North Carolina, who is three and a half months pregnant tested positive for COVID-19 (click here). Report 14 April.

67. Kim Anderson, age 36 from Idaho Falls developed Covid-19 on March 22nd at about 8 months gestation. She required oxygen therepy in hospital but not ventilation. The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 15 April.

66. A unnamed woman who is four months pregnant is the first pregnant COVID-19 patient admitted to Victoria Hospital in Karnataka, India (click here). Report 31 March.

65. An unnamed pregnant woman age 35 from the Kharpora Kokernag area of Anantnag in Indian administered South Kashmir was admitted to the Maternity and Child Care Hospital in Anantnag (click here). She gave birth to stillborn twins and died soon after. Her test results later confirmed that she was Covid-19 positive. It is reported that Syed Yasir, the commissioner of the region, believes the cause of death was negligence rather than Covid-129. An enquiry is ongoing. Report 27 April.

64. Amanda Joyce, age 33, who works at Newton Wellesley Hospital on the outskirts of Boston, Massachusetts, developed Covid-19 while pregnant (click here). She self-isolated at home, and the pregnancy is ongoing. Report  17 April.

63. Andrea Circle Bear, age 30, from Eagle Butte, South Dakota was pregnant and an inmate in a US Federal prison when she developed Covid-19 (click here). She was transferred to Carswell, a federal prison medical facility in Fort Worth, Texas, and thence to a local hospital where she was delivered by Caesarean section on 2 April. She died on 28 April. The baby’s status was not reported. Report 29 April.

28 April update – cases 58 to 62 added

62. Morgan Brink, age 30, from Roodeport in South Africa, tested positive for coronavirus on 25 March (click here). She had a cough and is self-isolating at home. Report 9 April.

61. Marie Youri, age 19, who had Covid-19, gave birth on 11 April in Yaoundé, the capital of Cameroon (click here). She is on oxygen therapy, & baby Foraya, birth weight 2.1kg, is in isolation. Report 12 April. Accidental duplicate

59 & 60. The deaths of two unidentified women in Mexico (click here). (Report cited in Study 66 here). Report 9th April.

58. Viviane Albuquerque, age 33 from Pernambuco, Brazil, died from Covid-19 at 32 weeks gestation (click here). The baby, delivered by Caesarean, survived. (Report cited in Study 66 (here) which also cites two other newspaper reports of maternal deaths in Brazil, but the links provided miss the reports.) Report 6th April.

26 April update – cases 55 to 57 added

57. Danielle Martin, age 32, from Belfast, Northern Ireland, developed Covid-19 while pregnant with twins at nine weeks (click here). She required artificial ventilation but recovered, and the pregnancy is ongoing. Report 23 April.

56. Molly Burdick, from Portland in Oregon had Covid-19. 18 days later she was treated for a ruptured (tubal) ectopic pregnancy (click here). She recovered. Report 21 April

55. Sally Nuza, from Ascot, Berkshire developed Covid-19 at 8 months gestation (click here). She recovered, the pregnancy is ongoing, and her unborn baby son is ‘perfectly healthy’. Report 24 April.

24 April update – Cases 53 & 54 added.

54. Wogene Debele from Maryland died of Covid-19 three weeks after giving birth (click here).  Report 23 April

53. Fozia Hanif age 29 developed Covid-19 and gave birth by Caesarean section on 2nd April. She died in Birmingham Heartlands Hospital on April 8th (click here). Report 23rd April

21 April update – Cases 50 to 52 added.

52. Jasmine Jones age 26 from Indianapolis, Indiana, and pregnant with twins, tested positive on March 22nd, at 33 weeks (click here). She was symptomatic, self-isolated at home and the pregnancy is ongoing. Report 20 April.

51.  Silvana Vergara from New York caught the virus at 22 weeks gestation (click here). She was “reassured”, so presumably has recovered and the pregnancy is ongoing, although this is not specifically stated. Report 18 April.

50. Sarah Manning tested positive for SARS-COV-2 a few days before giving birth in Jersey’s midwifery unit (click here). Presumably a normal vaginal birth. Mother and baby are pictured, unmasked, bottle feeding and not separated. Report 20 April.

19 April update Cases 47 to 49 added.

49. An unnamed woman developed symptoms of Covid-19 soon after giving birth in Strong Memorial Hospital, Rochester, New York. Whether she, her partner, or the baby, tested positive has not been disclosed. Report 31 March.

48. Jennifer Kruman, age 33, of Crown Heights, Brooklyn, tested positive 12 hours after giving birth to baby Isaac Hai Kruman, om March 31, at Mount Sinai West Hospital, Manhattan (click here). Isaac tested negative and both went home after 24 hours. Report 17 April.

47. Octobeya Scott, age 30, developed COVID-19 pneumonia at 33 weeks gestation (click here). She was delivered by Caesarean section under general anaesthesia, on March 22 at Jack D. Weiler Hospital of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, The Bronx, and ventilated for a further five hours. The baby, Alicia Anderson, was separated for five days. Both have now returned home. Report 18 April.

18 April update Cases 42 to 46 added.

46. Salina Shaw, age 37, from Southend in Essex, who had tested positive for Covid-19, gave birth on 4 April and died on 12 April (click here). Report 17 April.

45. Kilee Coye, age 25, from Canastota, New York State, has tested positive for the virus, and has some symptoms. She is 35 weeks pregnant (click here). Her partner also has Covid-19 and is on a ventilator. Report 15 April.

44. Lidia Puerta, age 26, from Spain tested positive at eight months gestation (click here, para 10). She was in quarantine in a hospital in Singapore, and the pregnancy ongoing at the time of the report. Report 22 March.

43. Yanira Soriano, age 36, developed Covid-19 at 34 weeks gestation. She required ventilation and the baby was delivered by caesarean at Southside Hospital in Bay Shore, New York. The baby tested negative. Mother and baby have been discharged. Report 16 April.

42. Megan Sites age 27 from Celina, Ohio, contracted Covid-19 at 29 weeks gestation (click here). She required ventilation, and later ECMO, and the baby was delivered by Caesarean section at 29 weeks. The baby, tested negative twice, is currently on NICU. The mother has improved slightly. Now off ECMO, but still ventilated.  Report 16 April.

16 April update Case 40 & 41 added.

41. Actress Patti Murin, age 39, probably has Covid-19, but has not been tested, and is self-isolating at home in California (click here). She is pregnant and due in July, so about 27 weeks gestation. Report 9 April.

40. Mary Agyeiwaa Boateng, née Agyapong, age 28, died on 12 April, in Luton & Dunstable Hospital UK from Covid-19 (click here). Her baby was reported to be “doing very well”. Report 15 April.

14 April update Cases 35-39 added

39. An unnamed woman with Covid-19 is delivered by Caesarean section at 32 weeks gestation at a public hospital in Nairobi (click here). The obstetrician used a pseudonym because she was not authorised to speak to the media.  No further details were given. Report 13 April.

38. Angela Primachenko age 27 from Vancouver was diagnosed with Covid-19 at 33 weeks and became seriously ill. She gave birth at 34 weeks after induced labour, while being ventilated at Legacy Salmon Creek Medical Center (click here). Her daughter was isolated in intensive care and has tested negative. Mrs. Primachneko has been discharged home. Report 13 April.

35-37. This report in The New York Times (click here) describes Precious Anderson, pregnant & critically ill with Covid-19, and two other unnamed women. The piece also mentions 29 pregnant or delivering women with suspected or confirmed Covid-19 in the Brooklyn Hospital Center. No mother or baby had died, and there had been no confirmed cases among newborns. The Brooklyn Hospital Centre is separate from the Presbyterian Allen Hospital & Columbia Irving Medical Center, so presumably these cases have not been reported in an academic paper yet. Report 12 April.

13 April update Cases 32-34 added. HT @danieladrandic.

34. An unnamed woman, delivered by Caesarean section at the MedLife Grivita private maternity hospital in Bucharest on March 13th, developed pneumonia after birth (click here). A test taken on March 20th was positive and she was transferred to Matei Bals Hospital, the Covid-19 treatment center in Bucharest. At the time of transfer mother and baby were reported to be in good condition (click here). Report 24 March.

33. These ten asymptomatic babies, in a maternity unit in the Romanian city of Timisoara, were apparently not infected in pregnancy or by their mothers (click here). “The mothers tested negative, but the babies tested positive so we have to consider their contacts with medical staff.” Report 7 April.

32. An unnamed mother died in the University Clinic of Gynaecology & Obstetrics in Skopje, North Macedonia. Her baby had died before birth. Neither death was directly due to Covid-19, but according to the report the mother, who had been transferred from Ohrid General Hospital, had her treatment delayed while Covid-19 test results (eventually negative) were awaited. This delay may have contributed to her death (click here). An investigation is ongoing. Report 6 April.

12 April update

31. An unnamed woman with Covid-19 was delivered by Caesarean section in the King Abdullah University Hospital in Irbid, northern Jordan (click here). The baby was isolated from the mother and has reportedly tested negative. Mother and baby doing well. Report 29 March.

30. Sophie Biddle, age 37, was diagnosed with Covid-19 on March 7th, but has recovered (click here). Her 20 week scan on March 23 was reportedly normal and the pregnancy is ongoing. Report 30 March.

10 April update cases 26 – 29 added.

29. An unnamed woman in Ritsona refugee camp 40 miles north of Athens tested positive for Covid-19 a day or two after giving birth (click here). Report 2 April.

28. 19-year old Marie Youri with Covid-19 gave birth prematurely in Yaounde, Cameroon (click here and here). She is said to be doing well with oxygen treatment. The baby Foraya weighed 2,100 grams and has not displayed any coronavirus symptoms. Report 8 April.

27. An unnamed 22-year-old woman with Covid-19 from Kyengera, Wakiso District, Uganda gave birth by Caesarean Section at Entebbe Grade B Hospital on April 5th (click here). Mother and baby were said to be in good health. Report 6 April.

26. An unnamed pregnant woman from Nallasopara died at Nair Hospital in Mumbai on April 4 (click here). Her baby was reported to have died in-utero before admission. She had been referred from a local hospital in Nallasopara after her condition deteriorated. It is reported that doctors suspect she died of Covid-19. A committee is investigating. Report 7 April.

A separate report (click here) of a 30 year old, nine month pregnant woman dying of Covid-19 in Mumbai may refer to the same woman. Report 6 April.

9 April update case 25 added.

25. Mallory Pease gave birth at Oaklawn Hospital in Marshall, Michigan to daughter Alivia on March 23 at term. She was symptomatic and tested positive for Covid-19. Alivia was not infected. Route of delivery not reported. Mother and baby both now discharged. Report 8 April.

8 April update cases 19 – 24 added.

24. Raquel Iacurto, age 32, a teacher from New York, was admitted to Long Island Jewish Medical Center with respiratory symptoms at 25 weeks gestation on March 11 and tested positive (click here).  She was discharged after three days. The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 28 March.

23. Simone Shoffman, a beauty blogger from Bothwell, near Glasgow in Scotland is pregnant and has tested positive. She is undelivered at home (click here). Report 6 April.

21. & 22. Two unnamed pregnant women with COVID-19 gave birth in Rebagliati Hospital in Lima, Peru, the first on March 22, the second on March 31st, both by Caesarean (click here). Both mothers were reported to be in good health, and neither baby was infected. Report April 8th.

20. Karen Mannering, from Herne Bay, UK, was admitted to the Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother Hospital in Margate on 21 March with respiratory infection. She tested positive on 25th March, when she was seven months gestation. She has since been discharged home and the pregnancy is ongoing (click here). Report 31 March, updated 1 April.

19. Michelle Wright, aged 37, who is 29-weeks pregnant, has tested positive for coronavirus. The pregnancy is ongoing. She is an inpatient at Russells Hall Hospital in Dudley, UK (click here). Report 7 April.

7 April update cases 16 – 18 added.

18. A newborn baby has reportedly tested positive for coronavirus at James Paget Hospital in Norfolk (click here). No details of the mother have been given. Report 18 March.

17. An unnamed woman with Covid-19 from Baton Rouge, Louisiana, is reported to have gone into preterm labour at 21 weeks (click here). The baby did not survive. The death was reported to the coroner so presumably the baby was born alive. The mother is reported to be on a ventilator. Report 6th April.  The coroner has reportedly decided that the death was due to coronavirus. The mother remains on a ventilator, update 7 April (click here).

16. An unnamed woman with Covid-19 has died during labour at The Whittingdon Hospital, London (click here). The baby survived. Covid-19 has not been ruled out as the cause, and the death has been referred to the Coroner. Report 6 April.

6 April update. Case 10, the first report, scientific or otherwise, of a COVID-19 birth from France, case 11 from Detroit, case 12, the first report from Greece, and two cases 13 & 14 from Egypt added. I’ve also belatedly added a case from Portugal from 17 March.

15. An unnamed woman with Covid-19 (click here) gave birth in Porto’s São João hospital on 17th March. She was described as “doing well”. No further details were given. Report 17 March.

14. An unnamed woman who had recently recovered from COVID-19 gave birth on 4 April by Caesarean section in Hurghada Hospital, (click here). Report 5th April.

13. A 30-year-old eight months pregnant woman infected with COVID-19, treated at Esna Specialized Hospital in Egypt is recovering (click here). The pregnancy is ongoing. Report 3rd April.

12. An unnamed 24 year old woman infected with Covid-19 has given birth at 40 weeks (term) at Attikon General Hospital in Athens, as reported by the state-run news agency ANA-MPA on 27th March (click here). She had tested positive on March 15 and was kept in the hospital for 2 weeks. The baby boy tested negative. No further details are given but both mother and baby are healthy and ready to go home.

11. First reported in the Detroit Free Press, (link broken). For “Click on Detroit” (click here). Jennifer Thompson from Warren, a Detroit suburb, developed symptoms on March 7th at 8 months. She tested positive on March 13th, and her son, Hollis, was born in Beaumont Hospital in Royal Oak, on March 28th. Birth details not reported, but mother and baby back home and doing well. Report 4 April.

10. The artist Ariane Chang @Arianechang describes her baby’s birth by elective Caesarean section under regional block at term on March 19th in “a private birthing clinic in the 15th arrondissement” in Paris, [Presumably Maternité Catholique Sainte Félicité] in the New York Review of Books (click here). She had had symptoms of COVID-19 for two days, and tested positive prior to a second operation under general anaesthesia to control intra-abdominal bleeding, the following day. Baby Clare, reportedly the first baby born to a COVID-19 mother in that clinic, was breast fed but not tested. Mother and baby recovering at home. Ariane Chang illustrates the article with her own paintings and drawings. Report 2nd April.

9. Carrie Symonds, the partner of British Prime Minister Boris Johnson is reported to have had symptoms of Covid-19 for a week (click here and many other sources). According to reports she has not been tested. Since the PM with whom she is living has had confimed COVID-19, it seems likely that she does too. Her due date has been reported as early July. Working back from a hypothetical EDD of 4th July would make her 27 weeks today.  Report 4 April. Update 29 April. She gave birth to a healthy baby boy.

8. Vanesa Muro “a carrier of Covid-19” gave birth to Oscar, birth weight 3.6 kg, by Caesarean on March 13 at the “Madrid hospital in La Paz” [more likely either La Paz university hospital or La Paz maternity hospital in Madrid] (click here).  (El Mundo report click here.) The date of her scheduled Caesarean had been brought forward by three days. Mother and baby were separated for 10 days. Oscar tested negative. Both well. Report 3rd April.

7. Urszula Osborne, age 41, a nurse in Boston Mass, contracted Covid-19 while eight months pregnant (click here). She is recovering and the pregnancy is ongoing. But her husband had severe disease requiring ventilation.  Report 3rd April

6. A 37 year old pregnant woman reportedly infected with Covid-19 died on 29 March after a Caesarean section at the Teresa Herrera Hospital in Coruña. The fetus had reportedly already died (click here). Details conflict, and the family are reported as disputing whether the death was due to Covid-19. An investigation is ongoing (click here). Report 30 March.

5. An unnamed woman age 27 is reported to have died from Covid-19 after giving birth in Łańcut in the south of Poland (click here and here). Report 20th March

4. Allegedly the first birth in Galicia to a mother with Covid-19 (click here). Baby Fabio, born at Álvaro Cunqueiro Hospital in Vigo by Caesarean section at 35 weeks. Birth weight 2.6 kg. Not infected. Mother and baby both doing well. Report 19 March.

3. Model, Michela Persico, partner of Juventus footballer, Daniele Rugani, (click here) is reported to be infected with SARS-COV-2 and is pregnant. The pregnancy is ongoing.  Report 19 March.

2. North Middlesex Hospital UK. Mother with Covid-19 pneumonia gives birth to an infected baby (click here). No further details. Report 14 March.

1 Valentina, is the partner of Matteo, who has been claimed to be Italy’s “patient one”. Matteo was seriously ill with Covid-19, but is reported to be recovering. Valentina is also reported to have developed less severe Covid-19, and is recovering at home. She is reported by La Republica (click here) to be eight months pregnant. At the time of the report, Valentina was undelivered. Report 9 March.

Jim Thornton

 

Covid-19 in pregnancy. Running totals

March 31, 2020

At least four registries are collecting cases but, so far as we’re aware, none have yet published results. Update 14 April, the Netherlands registry is publishing data. Below are totals from scientific reports in English, avoiding duplicates as far as possible. Update 12 May the UKOSS registry is now published, dwarfs all other studies, and is likely the most representative. These running totals are now obsolete.  We will therefore stop adding to them from today, 12 May.  We will continue to correct errors. Click here for links to, and descriptions of, the original reports. Cases only reported in newspapers & social media are not included.

Update 12 May – UKOSS (Study 92) and studies 79 & 85 added.  Studies 86 to 91 (tba), US studies which may include duplicates, will be added when disambiguated.

Update 3 May – various studies added.  More detailed Lombardy report S64 replaces S32. Inclusion of S66, S67 & S70, non-duplicated maternal death reports, probably make the maternal death totals misleading. Discussed here.

Update 25 April – 33 duplicate mothers and babies removed from Study 8 due to overlap with Study 55. Three infected babies from Study 8 remain in the “infected” column because Study 55 did not report baby infection.

Update 23 April – Studies 48, 50, 51 & 53 (5 mothers & 5 babies) added. Study 55 (9 early pregnancy losses, 68 delivered mothers, 70 babies & 41 ongoing pregnancies from Wuhan hospitals) also added. But 71 previously included & presumed non-duplicate delivered mothers and 73 babies from Wuhan, reported in studies 1, 2, 5, 6, 6a, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 17, 30, & 37 removed. The woman whose baby died, reported in study 5, has been left in the count since neither she nor her baby appears in study 55.

Update 18 April. Studies 45 & 46 added, & study 42 (updated NethOSS) removed from running totals

Update 16 April. Study 13; all six cases removed from running totals. Study 3; 12/13 mothers & 9/10 babies removed. Both due to suspected duplication.

Update 14 April Studies 42 & 43 added. Study 42 is the Netherlands “Covid-19 in pregnancy” registry, the first to report. Study 43 is the first academic report of a maternal death from Covid-19

Update 13 April Study 39 added.

Update 11 April Study 34 and 37 added

Update 9 April 2020 Studies 31 and 32 added

Update 8 April Study 30 added.

Update 7 April 2020 Studies 27 & 28 included. Study 14 all duplicates. Reasons for excluding studies 23-26 and 29 here.

Update 2 April 2020 Studies 18 – 22 added.

Update 1 April 2020 Study 6A included. (See also note re corrections below)

Mothers

Study no n Non duplic Term 36 + Preterm Vag CS Ongoing Severe Alive & del Dead
92 427 427 180 63 101 144 180 40 242 5
91 tba                  
89 tba                  
                     
87 tba                  
86 tba                  
85 11 11     7 4   5 11 0
79 1 1 1   1       1 0
76 6 6 2     2 4   2 0
74 1 1 1     1     1 0
70 1 1       1   1 0 1
69 1 1       1   1 1 0
67 9 9           9 2 7g
66 7 7               7g
65 5 5       3 2 5 3 0
64 42 42 40 2 24 18   7 42 0
62 1 1       1     1 0
60 1 1         1      
58 1 1 1     1     1 0
55 118e 109 54 14 5 63 41 9 68 0
53 1 1   1   1   1 1 0
51 1 1   1   1   1 1 0
50 1 1   1   1   1 1 0
48 2 2   2   2   0 2 0
46 107 107d 24 1 17 8 66 5 25 o
45 1 1 1   1       1 0
43 1 1   1 1     1 0 1g
42 89 0                
39 23 23b 20   2 18     23 0
37 3 0                
34 1 1 1   1       1 0
32 42 0                
31 1 1   1   1   1 1 0
30 16 0                
28 7 7   1   2 5a 2 2 0
27 43 43 17 1 10 8 25 6 18 0
22 1 1 1     1     1 0
21 1 1 1   1       1 0
20 1 1 1     1     1 0
19 1 1   1   1     1 0
18 1 1   1 1       1 0
17 5 0                
15 7 0                
14 7 0                
13 6 0                
12 1 0                
11 1 0                
10 2 0                
9 1 1 1     1     1 0
8 33 0                
7 1 1   1     1     0
6a 16 0                
4 1 1   1   1   0 1 0
3 13 1   1       1* 0 0
5 24 1f             1f 0
1 9 0                
total   806           80 457 21g

*ECMO, a assumed to be ongoing, not explicitly stated. b two 1st trimester terminations. c brief additional information from only 74 cases. d brief additional details from 91. e includes 9 early pregnancy losses. f this woman from study 5 presumed non duplicate since her baby died, and no babies reported to have died in study 55.  g see discussion on maternal deaths here.

Babies

Ref n Non duplic Term 36+ Preterm Vaginal CS Ongoing infected Alive  Del Dead
92 427 427k 180 63 101 144 180 12 238 5
91 tba                  
89 tba                  
87 tba                  
86 tba                  
85 11 11     7 4   0 11 0
79 1 1     1     1 1 0
76 6 6       2 4   2 0
74 1 1       1     1 0
70 1 1       1     1 0
69 1 1       1     1 0
67 11 11             5 6
66 9 7                
65 5 5       3 2   3 0
64 42 42 40 2 24 18   3 24 0
62 1 1       1     1 0
60 1 1         1      
58 1 1 1     1     1 1
55 70 70i 54 14 5 63     70 0
53 1 1   1   1     1 0
51 1 1   1   1   1 1 0
50 1 1   1   1     1 0
48 2 2   2   2     2 0
46 25 25 24 1 17 8     25 0
45 1 1 1   1       1 0
43 1 1   1 1       0 1h
42 19 0                
39 21 0                
37 3 0                
34 1 1 1   1       1 0
32 42 0                
31 1 1   1   1     1 0
30 17 0                
28 7 7 1 1   2 5d   2d 0
27 43 43 17 1 10 8 25 0 18 0
22 1 1 1     1   0 1 0
21 1 1 1   1     0 1 0
20 2 2c 2c     2c   0 2c 0
19 1 1   1   1   0 1 0
18 1 1   1 1     0 1 0
17 5 0                
15 7 0                
14 7 0                
13 6 0                
12 1 0                
11 1 0                
10 2 0                
9 1 1 1     1     1 0
8 33 0           3**    
7 1 1   1     1      
6a 16 0                
4 1 1   1   1   0 1 0
3 13 1   1           1*
5 24 1j               1b j
1 9 0                
Total   674           17 428 15

 

*stillbirth, **All 3 CS all PCR +ve & pneumonia (these three baby details included although cases probably overlap with study 55 not included in mother or baby totals), +IgM but probably are included in study 1, $PCR 36hours, a one set of twins, bCS at 34w BW 2,200g, refractory shock & DIC day 8, died day 9, COVID-19 throat swab day 9 negative. c twins. d Baby status assumed, not explicitly stated. e one set of twins. f no baby details. g one set of twins, but excluding three terminations. h Stillborn after spontaneous labour while mother was ventilated. i incl. two sets of twins.  j this baby from study 5 presumed non duplicate since it died, & no babies reported to have died in study 55. k includes 4 early pregnancy losses

Jim Thornton, Keelin O’Donoghue, & Kate Walker.

Adjustment 7 April. Earlier versions of this table had reported the babies and mothers of some ongoing pregnancies in the “alive” column. This column has been relabelled “Alive & delivered” with appropriate adjustments made.

Correction 1 April. The first version of this table on 30 March missed the neonatal death, and failed to note a set of twins born vaginally, in study 9. Both corrected. I’ve also reconsidered excluding the 33 neonatal cases reported in JAMA (Study 8) from the maternal totals, having learned that Wuhan Children’s Hospital has it’s own birth unit separate from Union Hospital.  The mother & baby numbers should now align, after taking multiples into account.

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